Environmental Chemical Hazards: Ozone Essay

Ozone plays a vital role in the atmosphere located in the two regions of earth’s layers. In the atmosphere region called stratosphere that lies between 6 to 10 miles above the earth surface and extends about 30 miles called ozone layer (“Science: Ozone Basics”). The lower region of atmosphere is called the troposphere. Ozone performs dual roles with different effects in the living beings of the earth’s surface. Stratospheric ozone the so-called good ozone plays a beneficial role to the earth surface.

It serves as a protective layering of earth trapping excessive amount of ultraviolet radiation, and key role to the temperature structure. Ozone layer regulates relative amount of warmth condition which favors life existence in earth surface. The ozone is composed three atoms of oxygen, it is very reactive gas though unstable and a very powerful oxidant elements seconds to fluorine (“Chemical of the Week: Ozone”). Ozone when exposed in bright lights formed a mixture of O2 and NO2. Ozone is at risk of unhealthful or dangerous level when the concentration of pollution is high.

Many experimental studies found-out harmful effects to human, animals, and plant the direct or excessive amount of sun’s UV-radiation. During the high concentration of pollution, ozone reacts with the hydrocarbon from the spewed of auto, trucks, and chemical manufacturers. Chlorofluorocarbon or CFC is a stable non-toxic chemical, nonflammable, and quite unreactive chemicals. CFCs are widely used as fire extinguishers elements, propellants in aerosols, and serve as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners due to its quiet characteristics. In recent study of ozone layer, the status is in danger.

According to the data of NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite find evidence of synthetic chlorine products in stratosphere regions causing Antarctic ozone hole (EPA). The manifestation of this condition warns scientist worldwide that it might be fall in the most danger scenarios of global warming. Excessive UV radiation in the earth’s surface creates risks to the lives on earth. Worse, the loss of ozone layer extent causes of disease in human health and damage to plants and animals life. Leading to human health at risks, species extinctions, and atmospheric climate change.

Ozone causes irritations in skin, eye, upper respiratory tract, and mucous membrane. Confusion, nausea, and headache, weak pulse rate, breathing malfunctions, and decreased on blood pressure are some effects of ozone in human inhalations (Schwartz). Ozone leads to the devastating skin cancer, large damage in cataract to blindness, and suppression of immune system declinations (“Health Effects of Exposure to the Sun”). The increased of ultraviolet radiation in the stratospheric ozone exerts the bad impacts in terrestrial ecosystem leading to climate change.

Climate change caused ice melting on glacier which scientist believes it relates to the inter-continental movements. Melt ice increased water level in the ocean, low elevated landmass forms sink and gone. One great example is land bridge connecting Asian regions in old age. However terrestrial ecosystem such as agricultural lands, agroecosystem, and forests in different types are in risks with insignificant changes due to climate change and ozone impacts (M. M. Caldwell and Tevini). Marine ecosystems are also susceptible in changes which show no good advantage in marine life.

Phytoplankton is one most important element in the food web of aquatic. The survival of this species depends on euphotic zone where sufficient sunlight and appropriate movements are allowed. Worst effects of ozone decreased marine reproductive capability, and impaired larval developments (“Health Effects of Exposure to the Sun”). The harmful effects of UV-B radiation cause severe damages and loss of food sources for humans as well as sources of animals in the food chain due to species extinctions. If the ozone is incapable to provide shelter in earth’s atmosphere it will results in global warming.

The physiological and developmental process of the plants is also affected by UV-B radiations. Plants exhibit changes in physical appearance like reducing leaf area and stem growth, inhabitations in photosynthesis, and even in flowering season. Changes in abiotic factors cause poor productivity and germinations of plants. However, indirect changes in plant forms, nutrient cycles, developmental and metabolisms process have important implications to the plants competitive balance, immunity, and biochemical cycle.

Ecosystem functions including plant biomass productions, seed productions, populations’ fluctuations, species composition, and mineral nutrient cycle are also affected by UV-B. Ozone depletion and climate change are global issue in global warming. Chemical such as CFC, HCFCs, and HFCs are greenhouse gasses leads to the global atmospheric change. Alarming the spreading of global warming, governments, NGOs, and organizations concerning environmental changes took actions to prevent this global disease.

Governments and other environment concerned agencies are hoping ozone’s recovery by preventable parameters. Banning or discontinue of CFCs productions, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and other chemical industry producing chemicals are implemented. Public are also informed and educated so that they can contribute in control. Today there are growing organizations leading conservations of natural resources and promoting eco-friendly ways to protect our environment from devastations.

One of most active environment organization is Greenpeace International, launching programs such solar electronic system, wind energy and banning chemical manufacturing companies (“Greenpeace International “). A government acts to implements Clean Air Act laws between countries. Scientist world wide believe CFC is one major factor leading the destructions of ozone layer. Regarding the use of CFC to the productions of refrigerators and air conditioning, government provides alternative options in CFC. Minimizing the productions of CFC, R-410A and R-407C tend to replace CFC usage (ASHRAE).

Although clear air act is the most preventive way, it counts a decades before the effects will totally revealed. There are remediation which helps minimizing the bad effects of ozone and UV-B radiation such as shifting to solar energy, and wind energy. Solar energy is the most promising remediation method in the future clean and sustainable energy source. It provides energy source not only from the environmental benefits but for companies seeking future better fuel without any destructions in environment. Wind energy on the other hand, replacing destructive nuclear power plants from all over the world.

This is an off-shore wind energy that has potential to facilitates the energy-power source in environmental-friendly way (“Greenpeace International “). Clean Air Act law regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. This law aims to protect the public health and environment. The main purposes are to enhance the quality of air resources for the welfare of public and productive capacity of populations; and to accelerate developments in preventions and control of air pollution (Clean Air Act: Stratospheric Ozone Protection).

Stratospheric Ozone Protection-states practices of replacing chemicals, product substitutes, or alternative manufacturing process that reduces over all risks to human health and environment (Clean Air Act: Stratospheric Ozone Protection). Informing and educating public regarding environmental changes and protections helps and controls destruction of Mother Nature. Thus, public has an aesthetic contributions in preventing air pollutions, and contributes to efforts of promotes clean air acts.

Public are advice to use methods of indoor air pollutants. The three most common approaches reducing indoor pollution are air cleaner, source control, and ventilation. These methods are eliminating source of air pollutants by employing air hygiene, ventilation methods, and air filters. Despite of all this remediation and implemented laws, we can help and control nature devastations thru simple steps. The forest has a certain role in sequencing carbon dioxide, the lack of forest trees lessen sequencer of carbon dioxide.

Plant species is the only living organisms can convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Nowadays there is growing environmental organization preserving natural habitat, being a volunteer in one of its program such as tree planting can help a lot. Recycling biological products like papers, bottles, and usable containers are very significant and helpful. All things we have papers, plastics, fabrics, and cement in our house come from the forest. If we don’t recycle more trees are cut, more lands are exposed, and climate change continuous growing leading to global warming.

 

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