Knowledge management and Information System
A company needs good people that have capability in performing tasks in professional manner, forward-looking/visionaries, ethical, and have strong commitment. Management must be fair and objective when dealing with the recruitment procedures in order to obtain and hire the right people that will help a company to achieve their dreams. Human Resources staff is professional, accountable, and recognized as vital to the company’s mission. The Human Resources Management function includes a variety of activities, and key activity is deciding what staffing needs the company face. Activities also include managing our approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies.
Human Resources Management have aim to bring together and develop into an effective organization all the people who are employed, allowing them to make their own best contribution to its success, both as an individual and as a member of a working group. Where another variety of management make transaction with purposes such as selling, production, accounting, marketing and advertising; Human Resources Management is focused with the human and the community suggestions of working in the business (Price, 2004).
Concerning the management abusiveness, this paper will discuss about management abusiveness prevention through knowledge, information system advantages, role of information system to stop or reduce the management abusiveness, any relation between knowledge information system and management abusiveness, and the differences between the private and public sector when they have the a similar information policy.
2. Aims and Objective
The following are the research objectives of this project:
To determine and indicate the benefits of knowledge management in business organization
To identify the level of information management implementation in business
To draw conclusions if the theory of knowledge management can be applicability to business
3. Significance of the Study
Since the incidence of management abusiveness almost occurs in almost corporations at any forms, therefore, it is important that they can eliminate it by using suitable applications and program under the auspices of appropriate technology.
4. Problem Statement
Realizing the importance of knowledge management to prevent management abusiveness, this paper will investigate the level of knowledge management implementation in business organization. In many details, this paper will discuss and elaborate several sub-questions as following:
What kind of management abusiveness that occurs in today’s business
What is the role of knowledge management in business organization, especially related to the prevention of management abusiveness?
Does A good information system gives advantage to the employee agents the management abusiveness
Does information system stop or reduce the management abusiveness
Are there any relation between knowledge information system and management abusiveness
Are there any deference between the private and public sectors when they have similar information policy
6. Literature Review
6.1 Kinds of Management Abusiveness
In today’s business environment where advance technology virtually exists in a company, the wrong technology implementation may provide new types of employment law claims, including e-harassment and abusiveness.
The condition occurs since some employers decide to conduct monitoring of e-mail and the Internet usage in order to limit their exposure to discrimination and/or harassment claims (Towns, n.d.). This decision is important since all employers must be concerned about employees sharing the company’s trade secrets and other proprietary or confidential information with competitors.
Unfortunately, such act may put employers to potential lawsuits, which in turn will cause a declining morale among employees who resent being told that they cannot use e-mail for personal messages and that their every move is being monitored.
Whatever risks might come, many employers insist that there is a need to monitor employees’ computer usage. According to a 2001 survey by the American Management Association, nearly 80 percent of employers engage in electronic monitoring of employees’ work-related communications and activities, including monitoring employees’ e-mail or Internet usage, videotaping the worksite, or recording employee telephone calls (Towns, n.d.).
Moreover, Towns also shows that the figure increases from 1997, when only 35 percent of employers monitored their employees. Moreover, while most of this monitoring is done on a spot-check, rather than on a continuous basis, the fact remains that more and more employers are engaging in some form of monitoring.
6.2 Employment Relationship
In Standard Employment Relationship, we can understand that employment relationship means the relationship between the entrepreneur and the worker/laborer based on an employment agreement comprising the elements of work, wages and instructions. Employment agreement means an agreement between a worker/laborer and the entrepreneur or the employer that contains the terms of employment, rights and obligations of the parties.
Employment relationship has a role as decision key of employee commitment, productivity, and satisfaction are moved outside employer limits and shifted to comparatively small, unstable, and new/innocent companies. All aspects of employment are bundled together and provided by the employing company in a Standard employment relationship (“Pressure mounts to protect standard employment relationship”, 2006).
6.3 Knowledge Management and Prevention of Management Abusiveness
6.3.1 Knowledge Management
Knowledge has been defined by April and Izadi (2005) as “applied information and is meant to change the way the holder of the information perceived something, resulting in an impact on his or her behavior”. They continue to state that knowledge affects the expertise and know-why. They also define the knowledge challenge as “the challenge of knowledge management lies in the organizational context – to get people to share their personal knowledge”. This challenge of knowledge sharing will be more complex in the business environment due to the large number of employees with have own mission and autonomy compared to an organization with one mission.
In addition, Bocij et. al (2006) define knowledge management as the method that organizations use to obtain knowledge. In addition, the term also refers to any efforts to enhance the output of an organization by implementing particular processes and practices to discover and capture intellectual capital including expertise, know how, and knowledge. In addition, intellectual capital also includes effort to create such knowledge available for transfer across an entire organization.
Often, knowledge management is different from information management since knowledge management it focuses more on achieving certain goals while information management tends to be more abstract. Furthermore, knowledge management appears to be closely related to institution’s objectives and particular results such as competitive advantages and brand-new innovation.
In order to establish a sustainable competitive advantage, a company should be a learning organization in which it involves management of knowledge. According to Leadbeater (2000), an organization that integrates knowledge management has several characteristics such as securing public legitimacy and entrepreneurial orientation.
Moreover, knowledge management also closely relates to human resource management. This is because members of an organization that adopt knowledge management ideas usually fall into following characteristics:
• Possess advanced education & specialist skills to identify and solve problems
• Have understanding about the importance for retaining productivity
• Possess specialized knowledge
6.3.2 Prevention of Management Abusiveness
In order to prevent companies from being sued due to abusiveness in committing unethical manners such as monitoring employees’ email and other types of communication, here are five tips as suggested by Douglas M. Towns in Legal Issues Involved in Monitoring Employees’ Internet and E-Mail Usage as following:
§ Integrate e-mail and other policies. An employer’s e-mail policy could be integrated with the company’s harassment and non-discrimination policies.
§ Limit use of technology to business purposes only. Employees should be notified that all technology, including e-mail and access to the Internet, is provided by the company to assist employees in carrying out the company’ business purposes.
§ Reserve right to review and monitor. Employees should be notified that the employer would treat all messages sent, received, or stored in the e-mail system as business messages, which the company is entitled to review, monitor, and disclose.
§ Include notice and consent language. Include in the policy language that by using the company’s electronic communications systems, the employee is, in effect, aware of and will be covered by the policy.
§ Strictly define appropriate Internet use. When employees are permitted access to Internet sites, provide guidelines regarding its use. For example, an employer’s policy may provide that employees may access the Internet only through the employer’s approved Internet access procedures.
6.3.3 Internet Portal: Knowledge Sharing
In reality, the implementation of team communications might vary from one corporation to another. However, it usually involves knowledge sharing in a portal as shown in the Figure 2.
The figure shows that a corporation may develop specific portal at which each employee can write their experience and idea. On the other hand, other employees in the corporation may access the shared knowledge to gain previous experience so that all employment policies can be shared in the portal (JANSEN, BACH, and ÖSTERLE, 2000).
Figure 2 Example of Corporations Portal
Source: (JANSEN, BACH, and ÖSTERLE, 2000)
The paper will employ qualitative approach, which is a research that is carried out through observations. The benefit of employing qualitative approach is it enables a researcher to investigate in little more detail on the individual perceptions of a phenomenon. However, since the research deals with the personal, therefore, such an investigation is limited in its scope.
Moreover, observation becomes an important technique for collecting data concerning what occurs in a real-life situation. This method also helps us to reach an understanding about the perceptions of those who are being studied, in that situation. To be specific, we employ non-participant observation method especially by analyzing qualitative information from journals, books, magazines and many more.
The most interesting part of conducting observation is it provides researchers with an understanding about the perceptions about things or people we observe. However, since observation deals with someone’s perception, we plan to avoid preconceptions since it would provide this research with some bias.
The initial, and continuous, research methodology will be based on a literature survey of the different fields applicable to the research. The scope of the research will include literature on knowledge, knowledge management and possible knowledge management in business. The sources will be reliable publications, articles and books.
In order to comprehensive explanation, this paper will describe the ideas on conducting knowledge management especially in their benefits to prevent abusiveness. In this situation, I will employ various sources including websites and other sources that discuss the reasons behind the need for knowledge management and information system in preventing management abusiveness.
8. Results and Discussion
The huge number of information available to make a decision has provided organizations and individuals with great benefits. However, the situation may lead to a disaster if the pile of information and knowledge is not managed appropriately.
The condition suggests that knowledge management relates directly to effectiveness. It means that managing knowledge will endow stakeholders of organizations with the capability to cope with current situations and conduct appropriate act accordingly.
The method used in developing this paper does not involve direct interviews, which will slightly reduce objectivity and the accuracy of information. In order to reduce unclear results, we are retrieving data from experts’ analysis, journals and various publications from available media. Using the data resources above, we are hoping to present an independent and objective analysis toward the contemporary issue.
This paper has discussed about the use of information technology to eliminate management abusiveness. However, the success of this program depends on the seriousness of management in implementing improvement. Since knowledge management deals with the management of knowledge, the idea does not limit the implementation only in particular segment like educational institution or social organization. In fact, knowledge management also provides unlimited benefits for business organizations.
Bocij P, Chaffey D, Greasley A and Hickie S (2006). Business Information Systems: Technology, Development & Management in the E-Business. Prentice-Hall
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. 2005. Retrieved March 7, 2008 from http://www.accel-team.com/human_resources/hrm_00.html
Izadi, F. A., & April, K. A. (2005). Knowledge management praxis. Juta Academic
JANSEN, Christoph M., BACH, Volker., and ÖSTERLE, Hubert. (2000). Knowledge Portals: Using the Internet to Enable Business Transformation. Retrieved March 7, 2008 from http://www.isoc.org/inet2000/cdproceedings/7d/7d_2.htm
Pressure mounts to protect standard employment relationship. (2006). Retrieved March 7, 2008 from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:BecJUCwF5PQJ:www.eiro.eurofound.eu.int/1997/02/feature/pt9702107f.html+standard+employment+relationship+&hl=id
Price, Alan. (2004). Human Resource Management in a Business Context. Second Edition. Thomson Learning
Schuler, Randall S. Jackson, Susan E. (2000). HRM and its Link with Strategic Management. Retrieved March 7, 2008 from http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~schuler/dataPages/chap7.htm
Towns, Douglas M. Legal Issues Involved in Monitoring Employees’ Internet and E-Mail Usage. GigaLaw.com. Retrieved March 7, 2008 from http://www.gigalaw.com/articles/2002-all/towns-2002-01-all.html