Management and Employee Motivation
Management comprises directing and controlling a specific group of people that has a certain mission and vision for the betterment of the company. It is crucial for a company to be managed objectively using “Management By Objectives” or MBO. It is for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. Management often encompasses the logistic deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can refer to the person or people who perform the acts of management as well (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). Management has to do with power by position, whereas leadership involves power through influence. For-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stockholders. This usually involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees) (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) . In non-profit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) .Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. Whenever they fail to entice or compel employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations. Headhunters for other companies are on the hunt for competent employees as well. Headhunting is one of the villains in MBO (Management By Objectives) The basic of elements of management plays a crucial part for the company to achieve its goals. Each element is essential for management integration. Planning is deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action. Organizing is making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Leading/Motivating is exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans. Controlling is monitoring and checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The formation of various business policies is a must as well. Each company has its own standards whenever it comes to their rules and regulations, as well as their standard ordered procedures. The mission of the business is its most adamant and sole purpose.. The objective of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed. The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. The business’s strategy refers to the plan of action that it is going to perform, as well as the resources that it will be utilized in order to achieve its mission and objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to use best the factors of production to the business’s advantage and for the betterment of the company as well. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form. There are various levels of management as well. Top-level management are top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature. They are responsible for strategic decisions. They must come up with the plan and see that plan may be effective in future. Middle management are mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of specific managerial tasks. They are held for and carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. They are the ones responsible for tactical decisions. Lower management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. They are like quality assurance mangers. Lower-level managers’ decisions are generally short-term ones (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). These level managers are complemented by the company policies for them to perform tasks in an objective manner. It serves as a guideline for managers which they can benefit and learn from. They give mid-level and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department. An apt framework is created wherein plans and decisions are made. Mid- level and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategic ones. Senior management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a corporation. There are most often higher levels of responsibility, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders), but they focus on managing the senior management instead of the day-to-day activities of the business. They are sometimes referred to, within corporations, as top management, upper management, or simply seniors. Middle management is a layer of management in an organization whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates and to generate reports for upper management. In pre-computer times, middle management would collect information from junior management and reassemble it for senior management. With the dawn of inexpensive PCs this function has been taken over by e-business systems. During the 1980s and 1990s thousands of middle managers were made redundant for this reason. Lower management A Supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The Lower-level manager or supervisor has several managerial functions like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are: first, the supervisor does not typically have “hire and fire” authority. Second, the supervisor does not have budget authority. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate division. Each has a specific function which is integrated for the company to reached its goals in an efficient way. These divisions are: Human resource management , Operations management, Production management, Strategic management,Marketing management, Financial management, Information technology management responsible for management information systems (MIS).
Management matters doesn’t only concern external matters that the company encounters everyday. The company ensures that its employees are motivated for their job. Arguably, an employee’s behavior is commensurate to his job, this means it an employee’s behavior is reflected on how he is contented with his job and its benefits he gets from it. With this in mind, each company has its own standard incentive program. Incentive programs are focused on employees for them to stay with the company and for them to feel secured with their jobs. This motivates them to perform their jobs more than the satisfactory level that a manager expects from a subordinate. All the factors that affect behavior must be recognized, including: motivation, skills, recognition, an understanding of the goals, and the ability to measure progress (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003).
Many companies mistakenly assume that what works for one organization will work well for all organizations. Companies often attempt to create incentive programs without thinking in detail about how each program feature will best suit their targeted audience. Providing pie and ice-cream when employees desire flexible work hours, paid time off, training, or the ability to work from home is an example of a negative incentive. To facilitate the creation of a profitable program, every feature must be tailored to the participants’ interests.
A successful incentive program requires clearly defined rules, suitable rewards, efficient communication strategies, and measurable success metrics. By adapting each element of the program to fit the target audience, companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness. An incentive program represents a substantial investment to most organizations. Receiving a sufficient return on that investment requires the full participation of the program participants. Incentive programs are based upon the concept that effort increases as people perceive themselves progressing towards their goal. In “The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer,” the Incentive Marketing Association ties incentive programs to the psychological equation: Ability x Motivation = Performance (The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer). In order to properly motivate, programs must be designed to offer a variation of products and services to program participants based on their unique interests and diverse needs. Successful programs need to carefully develop their reward methods to keep participants eager to approach a new goal once they have achieved a reward. In order to create an effective program, organizations must keep the overall objective in mind when considering program design and implementation.
Objectives should be formed based on the organizations overall goals and should be straightforward and specific so participants clearly understand the expectations. Program objectives can vary depending on the needs of each individual organization. They should be challenging, yet achievable. If objectives are viewed as unattainable, the program will be destined for failure. Objectives may include motivating employees, recognizing performance, persuading customers to make a purchase, or even reinforcing a marketing message.
Once the program goals have been determined, every aspect of the program must be measured against this goal in order to ensure the programs success in goal achievement. Whenever successful, objectives should provide measurable outputs allowing the organization to monitor performance and measure the overall success of the program. There are specific types of incentive programs like: points program, employee, consumer, dealer, and sales. For employees to be motivated such incentives like cash incentives, non-cash incentives, and non-monetary rewards as well. Managers need to understand how company employees see them in order to manage the impression they make, not just their intentions. Whenever a business wants its people to make a lot of money for them, then it should set high standards and give employees something they can be excited about and making them secured with their jobs as well. The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. At lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg’s two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate (Geen, R.G, Human motivation: A social psychological approach, 1995) . Reality checked, motivated employees always look for better alternatives to perform their jobs. Motivated employees are more quality oriented and prolific because the company gives them additional motivation though incentives that augments their performance. The business is empowered by this mutual relationship of employee and the company. These are based on reality and psychological facts as well. All of these facts are practically based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Barker, S. Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.(2004).
Deci, E. L. Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press. (1975).
Geen, R. G. , Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole.
Ormond, Jeanne Ellis. “Educational Psychology: Developing Learners” Fourth Edition.
Merrill Prentice Hall. (2003).
Spevak, P. A., Ph.D. & Karinch. . “Empowering Underachievers” First Edition. New
Bernard, L. C., Mills, M. E., Swenson, L., & Walsh, R. P. . An evolutionary theory of human motivation. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131, 129-184. Full text, (2005)
Geary, D. C. . The motivation to control and the origin of mind: Exploring the life-mind joint point in the tree of knowledge. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 21-46. Full text.(2005)
David McClelland . Human Motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 6: Student Motivation (motivation in classroom contexts),(1985)
Geen, R., Human Motivation-A Psychological Approach. Wadsworth Publishing. 1994.
Richard Barrett, Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People Business & Economics,(2003)