Management Decision Making: A System Approach
[An Analysis on the Organizational Issues of ISA]
Background of the ISA Organization
ISA is a multinational business organization that produces voltage products. These are primarily electronic products that are used within certain machines for them to be able to function. Being a multinational organization, the company was decided to have four primary divisions for better functional results.
The said divisions are as follows:
· Distribution Transformers
· Medium Voltage Products
· Low Voltage Products
The manufacturing section is the internal supplier of the organization. As it could be observed, the functional procedures of the organization are based upon the complexity of the works that are done within each section. The divisions were primarily applied to regulate the different procedures of job application during work hours. These divisions also help the Human Resources Department of the organization in identifying the capabilities, the skills and the salary measurement of each worker within the organization.
As it could be noted, the four divisions also have their own set of authorities. The authorities come in forms of managers, supervisors and other organizational officers alike. The officers serve as the link communication between the higher management and the lower-level of employees.
Description of the Issue
It is not at all easy to manage a multicultural organization such as ISA. Aside from the personality individualism of each employee making up the sections in the organization, it should be remembered that the cultural diversity of the employees also causes conflicts between fellow workers. However, because of the implication of right way of leadership and authoritarian control within each section of the company, the said complication of views and opinion within the work area is quite regulated.
Although the differences are controlled, the motivation among the employees as well as the higher level of authorities in the organization has not been carefully focused upon by the company mismanagement. As a result, it could be observed that the employees are having their own goals separate form the goals of the entire organization. From this point of view, the employees are noticeably pursuing their own motives rather than that of the company’s.
True, it is normal to accept that each employee possesses their own goals and motives upon entering a certain job. However, it should not be forgotten that every employee is also expected to get along with the procedure of the organization he is working for in reaching the goals that are set for the whole company to reach within a specific appointed timeline. For this reason, team unity and the organizational oneness is not that easy to attain.
Metaphors are primarily noted as a particular type of a speech idiom. The art of language however has made a fine effect upon the creation of managerial policies and procedures. Metaphors are designed primarily to help the employees understand the situation in a more complex procedure. Thus, by doing so, the management helps the employees get more involved within the problem as well as with the solutions that are set to fox the conflicts and complications within the organization. (Gibson, Bruhn, 2001)
As for this case, the issue on the unity that is lacking among the employees of ISA and the wrong track of motivation that they get to perform their duties for the company makes it necessary for a metaphorical procedure to be applied for the identification of the solution needed for the situation mentioned above.
For this particular situation, the following metaphors are suggested to be of use for the proposal of the procedural solutions:
(A) Major Metaphor: Metaphors of Meaning
To be able to meet the needed solution for the issue, the metaphors of meaning could be utilized as it pertains to the different concepts that involve human motivation and the relation of which upon their performance in their jobs. A person’s ability to think and examine his ways is the essence of this particular metaphor. It primarily encourages each individual to study themselves as the primary source of organizational success. (Gibson, Bruhn, 2001)
(B) Minor Metaphor: Metaphors of Resistance
This particular metaphor shows how people are affected by their cultural backgrounds as they relate the said divisions to their own personalities and identities as individuals. (Fleming, 2005)
Justification and Explanation of Choice
The Metaphors of meaning has been chosen to be the major metaphor to be utilized in treating this particular case because of its impact on the individual players within the issue. It is more focused on mid-based motivation unlike that of Metaphors of resistance. However, the strength of the minor metaphor when it comes to cultural diversity makes it a necessary support for the application of the major metaphor to be used. (Czarniawska, 1998).
SoSM [System of System Methodologies]
and VSM [Viable System Model] Critique and Application
The System of System Methodologies primarily rearrange the procedural approach within the different issues that certain organizations are facing. Most likely, the system that is suggested by the SoSM is chosen basing form the different elements that are contributing to a certain organizational issue. As for example, it this particular case with ISA Company, the determinants of the situation are cultural and individual diversity of the employees leading to separate goals from each other making unity hard to achieve within the said Company. (Yolles, 2005)
Hence, by knowing what the issue’s determinants are, the pattern of SoSM could be identified well as to how effective it could be on the Company upon application. The effectiveness of the chosen procedure however depends on the understanding of the primary people involved within the issue of the system that has been chosen to be applied within the organizational reformation. (Leonard, 1999)
Meanwhile, VSM or Viable System Model refers to the pattern by which the procedures of solving the impending issues are based upon the capability of the people to live within certain measures of tolerance. The developments of the issue’s solution are primarily directly affected by the fact that the conditions of motivation of the people of a certain organization depends on the condition or state of treatment that they receive from the management. (Leonard, 1999)
As for ISA’s case, it could be noted that although the sections of the organization are well assisted by the appointed officials in each group, the system of organizational motivation has been disregarded by the organization because of the fact that they opt to attend to other things, which they consider to be of much more importance than organizational motivation. They neglected the fact that although the employees are given the chance to interact with the management, their lack of unified pursuance of a single goal for the organization results to the entire company’s weakness in terms of business transactions and activities.
Integration of Metaphors with VSM procedures
Variables are expected to have different impacts within a group. The usage of the metaphor of meaning in this case supports the needed strength of the solution to help VSM workout. As mentioned earlier, the metaphor of meaning helps in the strengthening procedures of the right motivation of the people within a certain group. Hence, the VSM application of the solution helps in building up an organization that allows the people see the goals of the entire group as one. This particular organization shall be derived from the basic variables that are to be identified through the utilization of VSM procedures.
When the organizational goal has already been reestablished and has been primarily outlined clearly for others to comprehend with, the goal of each individual based on their personal needs becomes secondary, and the group goals of the organization becomes the primary concern of each employee.
Model Chart Application
The following paragraphs shall be a presentation of the model charts found in the paper of Raul Espejo (2003) entitled: “THE VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL:A BRIEFING ABOUT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE”
Figure 4 Analysis: From this model, it could be seen that the systems are prearranged in a way that they are able to affect the situation in three ways. The interaction of the environment within the organization is not much given importance in this model since the solution would primarily be regulated within the organization in an internal procedure. Solving the problem would be more directed upon the actual people who are involved in the issue thus, culminating the company’s ability to internally cure the issues within themselves alone.
Figure 5 Analysis: The environment, the diversity of the employees and the management procedures are the primary elements that are needed in collecting the necessary data for the solution of the issue. More likely, the controlling factors as mentioned earlier are to be used as the influential elements that are expected to contribute to the views of the employees with regards the situation that they are involved with.
ISA”s employees are then expected to change their views as to how they are primarily motivated to perform for the organization through the impending influences that they need to deal with inside and outside of the organization.
Figure 6 Analysis: The management’s ability to monitor the different activities of the employees within the organization as to how they are primarily motivated to perform well is the focus of this model. Carrying the said procedure upon the situation of ISA, it could be observed that the management could do so much in assisting the employees with their activities and their performance. The assistance that they give could help enhance the realization of the employees of their importance to the organization.
Evaluation of Solution Effectiveness
From the discussion made above and the model patterns that were displayed, it could be observed that the application of the solution of creating possibilities for the employees to realize their worth to the organizational progress thus encouraging them to work well in unity towards the fulfillment of the organization’s goals could be expected to gain success in the future. The careful application and utilization of the metaphorical theories that have been mentioned herein could help well in helping the management fulfill the task that they are supposed to do in motivating the employees to work as one organization.
Gaining a Better View on Applying the SSM Procedure
The integration of the SSM application in this particular situation certainly strengthens the already existing procedure of solving the problem. SSM primarily focuses on the cultural aspect of the issue. Since the employees are expected to have come form different cultures, it is simply acceptable to expect that the people within such an organization have their own goals with regards the basis of their particular traditional origin. It is believed that the way a person is brought up sets the personality that he acquires, as he grows older. This is the exact picture that is happening in ISA. Probably, the employees are all realizing the fact that they have their own personal needs and demands from the business organization that it overcomes the main goal of the said workers in helping the whole organization battle the odds through their way to success.
Obviously, these types of employees have a certain need of being assured that they are lead by the organization to being able to reach their own goals for them to be completely motivated to appeal to the need that they need to address themselves in helping the organization reach its goals as well.
The important factor to consider in this stage is that every individual has a need of satisfaction. The strong impact of being personally satisfied as a worker in the performance outcome of the situation suggests that the organization’s provision of the said needs shall lead to a more focused work force.
The figure that follows identifies the said particular needs of employees based upon the application of the Herman Dooyeweerd Theory in implementing the SSM procedure.
Figure description and explanation:
From the figure shown above, several aspects of satisfaction control the needs of people. The words on the left describe the primary sectors of satisfaction that should be considered by administrators in creating motivational patterns for their workers. On the other hand, the ones on the right indicate the sections of improvement needed to be given attention in order to fulfill the satisfaction of the qualities written at the other side of the presentation.
From this particular presentation, it could be observed that the needs of the people regardless of their culture and origin are given high importance. The meeting point of the solution is the fact that the people are humans and they require something to be able to meet a certain measure of satisfaction. By remembering this particular truth, the application of SSM could be implemented and be expected with great results.
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