Managing route organization in the Service industry Essay

Abstract

 

As business industries continue to emerge in a profit driven world, the concerns of servicing organizations get much related with the idea of making better profit from being able to perform better business activities and appointments better. In this regard, this study is focused upon the needs of a business organization to meet deadlines of product deliveries through the use of route organization or scheduling.

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Acknowledgements

 

The researcher would like to acknowledge the help given by her family in the completion of this study. She also wants to give ample gratitude to her instructors in giving her the necessary knowledge she needs for this research work. All the contents of this project as well as its results are dedicated to the people who have strongly inspired her in pursuing this paper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

 

Topic and Headings                                                                   Page

Chapter 1 Introduction                                                               1-3
Statement of Problem                                                     3-4
Purpose of Study                                                             4-5
Importance of the Study                                                5-7
Scope of the Study                                                          7-8
Rationale of the Study                                                    8-9
Definitions of terms                                                         9-17
Overview of the Study                                                    17-18

Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature                              19

How Company Activities should be Managed         19-27

Understanding the Importance of time                      27-34

Suggestions for Effective Route Scheduling                       35-43

Chapter 3 – Methodology                                                                      44
Approach                                                                           44-45
Data Gathering Method                                                  45-47
Database of Study                                                                       47-48
Validity of data                                                                  48-49

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Originality and Limitation of Data                                49-50
Summary                                                                            50

 

Chapter 4- Data Analysis                                                           51-53

Data Presentation                                                            53-59

Overall Analysis                                                               60-61

Suggestions for application                                         61-62

Chapter 5- Summary, Recommendations, and Conclusions

Summary                                                                            63-70
Recommendations                                                         70-71

Conclusions                                                                      71-75

 

Bibliography                                                                                 vi-viii

 

 

 

 

 

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List of Figures                                                                               page

Figure 1  Results of survey                                           53

Figure 2  Results of Questionnaires                           55

Figure 3  Comparison Processes                                56

Figure 4  Greenwich annual performance                 58

Figure 5   McDonalds annual performance               59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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Managing Route Organization in the Service Industry

 

 

CHAPTER I Introduction

 

Customers are the main source of “blood” for servicing companies. This is why having been able to meet the needs of the customers of a certain business firm or organization is a vital part of business activities which they intend to engage with. Meeting these needs means providing excellent service. This is the reason why along the goals of a business company to gain profit is the fact that the administration of an organization also aims to provide whatever their customer needs.

As mentioned the business world, servicing the customers with the best efforts of the companies in the business industry is usually the main core of competition. OF course, if an organization is able to provide the customers it serves with the best performance, thus making the customers feel much enjoyed with the service they received, then that certain organization would be trusted and accepted by many customers as well. In this way, an organization is able to attain the two main goals it has, to provide fine service and also to gain higher rate of profit.

 

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True, things may seem easy at first. However, as the discussion goes deeper concerning the required standard way of meeting consumer’s needs, things become much more complicated. As obviously seen, being able to meet consumers’ needs requires a lot of effort. In fact, there are also considerable amount of financial fund needed for this goal. It is not at all an easy task to take.

The consequences of failing this task though are indeed detrimental for business organization, as they would surely loose the source of their company’s profit. This is the reason why many business entrepreneurs spend a lot of financial funds for attaining the said goal.

However, if the view of the entrepreneurs regarding this goal becomes unbalanced then it would more likely be a lost for the company as well. For although they are able to provide the customers with the service they do expect from the organization, if the amount of expenses for this matter is equally the same with the profit, there would be nothing added to the revenues of the organization. True, everything must be taken at a balanced view when business is being discussed.

In this regard, it must be obvious that the factors affecting the goal of meeting the needs of the company customers should be discussed and examined well.

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As for this reason, several points of consideration shall be tackled well. Concerning this paper, the management of route organization for servicing companies shall be examined as to how effective could the said factor of business success could be planned well.

IN this regard, the essential factors making up an excellent plan of route organization would be well introduced through the use of different ways of gathering data from different sectors of the business world. As well as basing details from the written works of several writers having strong endeavors in business systems.

Statement of the Problem

To be able to clearly understand the topic being studied in this case, several guide questions should be considered during the process of investigation. In this regard, the problem being examined shall be introduced and tackled well within the discussions.

The said problems are the following questions:

How do the different significant global servicing companies around the world handle the challenges of meeting the deadlines of deliveries they have sworn to give their customers everyday?
Does the model pattern they set for meeting delivery deadlines prove to be effective?
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Basing from their experiences, are there possible patterns of route organization better than what they already work with?
There are numerous advices from the writers on the said field, which of these suggestions could be used in order to attain excellent plans on route organization?
Finally, how could a certain organization attain a considerably fine record with regards to their ability to meet the needs of their customers?
With the use of these guide questions, this study shall be initiated and

clearly presented for better understanding and application. Aside from this, the said questions shall be of help in attaining the main purpose of this study.

Purpose of the Study

This study is designed to identify the assets and liabilities of business organizations regarding the main reasons behind the success of organizations in giving excellent service to their customers.

Along with this, this study also aims to improve the existing strategies used by companies today in meeting this common organizational goal. This is due to the fact that the researcher aims to improve the said existing strategies. In this way, the improved plans would

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be able to meet further customer satisfaction and aggravate the profit and revenue chances of the business organization.

Another reason why this study is commenced, is the fact that it could help numerous organizations having issues regarding the need of  making it with the aims of meeting customer expectations especially with regards to “on time delivery services”. With this, the organizations who are able to meet these requirements would naturally receive the best results of being a much trusted and reliable company.

The results of the application of the strategies, which would be suggested in this study, are expected to be the source of company’s pride when it comes to their servicing abilities. Surely, it would also be a source of positive hopes in receiving higher rate of revenue and income for the organization.

Importance of the Study

For the reason that many companies right now are having a hard time balancing their resources with regards to dealing with the numerous activities they are engaged with. In this regard, one of the most important thing that must be considered is the way they meet deadlines they set with regards to the services they are supposed to give for their customers.

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This study is indeed important since it does help in the planning process of exactly meeting deadlines set for the company to fulfill. With all the suggestions and experiential examples companies who would be able to use this study as a source of organizational plan would indeed get a lot of knowledgeable factors to contribute in establishing an excellent servicing company.

Another importance laid within the scope of this study is the fact that it displays complete guidelines in attaining considerably successful plans for company delivery activities. The fact that business companies are in dire need of competing along with other colleagues, the clear breakdown of several hindrances in the community or the society for attaining the said business goal would help in preparing business entrepreneurs in facing the challenges of servicing activities.

It is also important to see the basic things that contribute to meeting deadlines on time. Surely, every organization would have the interest on knowing which part of their servicing activities hinders them from actually giving the best provision they could give to their clients. Through the utilization of this study, the company administrations would be able to understand the need for adjustments and changes in their existing systematic approach towards company activities. In this way, they are

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going to be able to enhance the traditional way of servicing which they usually offer their customers. Then again, the companies would be able to bring their revenues to a higher rate and the company a higher “reliability image” within the human society.

Scope of the Study

As the topic suggests, this study simply aims to discuss the necessary details in the existing business practices regarding the “Hundred Percent Customer Satisfaction” idealism of businesses, which is connected with the meeting of deadlines of servicing organizations.

Normally, as clearly seen, this study does not cover the other problems faced by business organizations such as Human Resources disputes and others. Instead, it mainly focuses on the factors of business organizations contributing to the aim of the business administrators of both providing excellent service to clients and gaining profit for the business as well.

For this reason, the study  would be more likely concerned only with the span of manufacturing activities of a company [if it is a manufacturing enterprise], the productivity capacities, the arrangement of route schedules for delivery and the equipments used to fulfill “on time deliveries”. In this way, this piece of business plan for servicing companies

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would be able to meet the purposes it is designed for as described in the paragraphs above.

Rationale of the Study

The principles used to attain the main reasons for this study is mainly focused on both profit and service excellence goals of the company. This is designed to limit the scope of the study and to be able to focus on a single issue of the company. In this regard, this study would be more effective for the application basing on the issue it tackles.

The justification of this study based on experiential examples and expert suggestions from business enthusiasts are used to definitely understand the main factors of business and to clearly get the main idea of the topic, which would help the researcher carefully lay down the necessary details, which would contribute to the success of servicing companies.

Considering all these, the essential aspects of business organizations on giving service to its customers would be the main target of the study as these are the core keys in meeting the needs for successful systems in organizations. It could well be understood that the business activities to be examined in this research work shall be placed in

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a clear path or pattern for the servicing companies to apply within their set

of organizational strategies.

Definition of Terms

In this research work, there are several words that are technical words used in business, which are embedded within the discussions. This is due to the fact that no other words from the layman’s term that could best describe the idea being defined by the said vocabularies.

The following are the words to be defined:

Alignment/ Aligning
-the arrangement of something in a straight line or in an orderly position in relation to something else.

-the correct position or positioning of different components with respect to each other or something else, so that they perform properly.

Assets
-somebody or something that is useful and contributes to the success of something.

– In business, it may be defined as a factor [which may be financial or structural], which helps the whole organization to become a part of the business industries as a successful organization.

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Aggravate
–       to make something higher or more intense.

–       In business matters, this term usually means to bring income and company revenues to a considerably higher rate for better profit.

Business
-a particular trade or profession

-company or other organization that buys and sells goods,

makes products, or provides services.

– commercial activity involving the exchange of money for goods or services

.the amount of commercial activity or patronage that exists at a particular time

Customer or Client
–       person or company that buys goods or services.

–       They are described in business as the “blood” source of every business organization.

Corporate
-A group of business entrepreneurs having the same goals and aims in business activities. They are legally grouped

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together by contracts and are acting as one group having one business entity and is represented as a unique unit in the business industry.

Company [or firm]
–       a certain business enterprise bonded by a single mission, a specific vision and an ultimate goal designed to gain profit and name in the business industry.

Driver
–       It is described in business as the factors that causes a lot

of business activities to happen. They are referred to as the reasons of implementing business goals and missions as well.

Deterministic
–       having an outcome that can be predicted because all of its

causes are either known or the same as those of a previous event.

–       These are business activities, which are much predictable with regards to their results in the business world

 

 

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Entrepreneur
–       a person or a group of people who owns a business entity and are active in the business industry

Goal
–       An organization’s aim with regards to its ‘fruits of hardships’ in the business industry. It may also refer to the main reasons behind business activities

Investigation
–       A close and careful examination of details regarding a certain issue

–       A deep observation conducted by experts on certain field in the society for research reasons, mainly designed to clarify different aspects of  several issues

Liabilities
–       Refers to the weak points of a business entity

–       It may be referring to a person, a group of people, or even resources that are involved with the business activities of a certain organization.

 

 

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Maintenance
–       a process of doing something in a regular basis

–       business refers to this process as a way of keeping a constant observation on how business excellence is applied in the organization with regards to its way on fulfilling the goals set for the said business firm.

Manufacture
–       To produce something out of raw material

–       To be able to come up with something from certain materials; as a result, the manufactured products are supposed to be consumable for customers of a business organization.

Manage
–       To be able to help people in a business firm

–       To control several activities performed by an organization as to how much they are aligned with the goals and mission of the organization.

Organization
–       a group of entrepreneurs along with the employees who work together towards one goal.

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Oversight
–       To foresee what was supposed to happen basing from a series of processes and experimentations done by organization administrators and managers.

–       To expect for certain results due to the series of activities performed by business members.

Performance
–       The process or the manner in which people are able to do things for a purpose; the ability of someone or somebody to function for a specific reason or cause

Planning
–       the act of putting things into an arranged way to be able to meet certain goals.

–       It is a way in which business entrepreneurs are able to put several business activities in a certain specific process of completion. In this way, the said entrepreneurs are able to determine the factors in their organization that helps in their walk towards the path of business success.

 

 

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Productivity
–       the ability of a business company to manufacture products to be able to distribute them to the consumers; this is the measure of an organization’s capability  in manufacturing items for social consumption.

Profit
–       it is the income of every company from the products and services they provide the society; mostly, this is referred to as the revenues of the business firm, which are earned from the business activities they do with regards to the provisions they offer their clients.

Quota
–       Refers to a set of planned quantity of sales or revenue designated t be met by employees at a certain appointed time for the aim of earning a stable profit for the organization.

Route
–       it is the way used by company deliverers to reach their clients to deliver them the orders they made. Usually, this is

 

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a scheduled or specified way for delivery men to be able to reach the places of their customers.

Resources
–       this are the either the materials or the people who’s skills are utilized to make the products offered by the company for social consumption.

Scheduling
–       it is the way in which business administrators are able to arrange their activities in a certain manner that all the activities are able to meet the deadlines and expected results set by the administrators themselves.

Service
– work done by somebody for somebody else as a job, duty

-work done for the customers of a store, restaurant, hotel, or similar establishment, often with regard to what pleases them

These activities are usually designed to meet specific demands of company clients.

Satisfaction
–       the level of feeling in which clients are agreeing that they

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received the service and the quality of product they expect and was as well promised to them by business firms.

Utilize
–       to be able to use for specific purpose

–       Things utilized by a business organization may be in the  form of financial resource, the raw materials used for manufacturing activities, or  equipments used for production

and servicing for the customers

–       People may also be utilized through the company’s use of their talents and skills in the production and delivery activities of the business firm.

( Source: Gale Group. (1999). Encyclopedia of Business.

Thomson Gale; 2nd edition. )

These words are used within the context of this study. And the

technicality of these words are widely accepted in this study to be able to be specific with their definitions as used by authors and the people involved in the business industries.

Overview of the study

As said earlier, several survey questions have been utilized to complete this study. In this regard, the survey questions are computed

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and averaged to be able to arrive at the results presented herein. The

utilization of these results gives the researcher a chance to examine the

real events happening in the actual business industries with regards to the topic being discussed which is the organization of routes used by the business organizations in delivering their products to the customers.

Furthermore, this study continues to evaluate the strategies used by the companies around the globe in servicing to their clients regardless

of the products they offer.

Aside from this, along with the process used by the researcher of this study, which are both the interviews and the surveys, the use of suggestions found in the literatures pertaining to the topic would also be effectively utilized to answer the problems referred to in this paper.

The literatures mentioned herein are the books and other journal articles prepared by business experts to give solution to the issue on route organization and service excellence, which each business organization has to face. In this regard, those literatures are to be introduced and examined in the chapter to follow.

 

 

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CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature

 

Several written pieces related to route organization is to be discussed in the paragraphs to follow. For better and deeper understanding of the idea, the literatures read by the researcher, which are listed herein, are grouped into three business concerns related to the topic being discussed in this study. The said divisions are How company activities should be managed; Understanding the Importance of time; Suggestions for effective route scheduling. In this way, the relation of the literatures to the issue being answered would be clearly understood.

How Company Activities Should be Managed

The book authored by Hugh Aaron entitled “Business Not As Usual: How to Win Managing a Company through Hard and Easy Times” talks about the essential factors needed to accomplish the goals of any business organization. “The plan of a successful business is naturally based on the effective and strong foundation of a business organization” (Hugh, 12). Moreover, according to this author, the strong foundation of any company relies of the management of activities, which the organization is mainly engaged with during for its business operations (15).

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Hugh further elaborates that business organizations are supposed to be designed in such a way that the whole company would be able to face the rising challenges of the business industry. Being able to survive the said challenges should prove the strong foundation of the organization, which it has been rooted with.

In this regard, Hugh broke down the process of management, which could help entrepreneurs decide and plan the activities that the business should engage with. The following are the three steps mentioned along with their defined importance for the firm:

Have a definite goal- of course, any organization would have to have a certain goal. But the fact that it is a business organization, the goal of that certain type of organization should not simply be based on the “revenue-income-profit” system. Instead, it should also highlight the different interests of the consumers and the clients targeted by the business organization to serve.
Have a planned process of reaching the organization’s goal- the process of reaching an organizational goal should not be simply based on the goal itself. Considering the capability of the organization to handle such processes should be carefully outlined by the administration to be able to weigh both the limitations and
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the strengths of the company regarding the fulfillment of the goals which were set as a basis of preempted success for the company.

Make decisions based upon practicality and reality- as mentioned earlier, the strengths and the limitations of the organizations capability in fulfilling tasks and responsibilities designed towards the goal of the organization should be identified well. In this way, the plans of activities to work on as the business takes a progressive development shall be practical enough for the employees as well as with the administration of the company to fulfill.
( Source: Hugh Aaron. (1993). Business Not As Usual: How to Win Managing a Company Through Hard and Easy Times. Stones Point Press; 1st ed edition.)

As further mentioned by Hugh in his book, “the determination of an organizations existence through time would be based upon the fact of its effective and practical plans designed from the very beginning of the organization” (12). True, establishing an organization is not an easy task to accomplish, but with the aid of a considerably practical and efficiently designed plan, the goals of making a strong foundation for a business organization would be much easier achieved.

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Regarding this, another author tried to suggest several ways in which a successful organizational plan for business activities could be done. The book  “Total Productivity Maintenance: A Route to World-Class Performance” by Peter Willmott describes planning as a core factor in business progress.(14). In this regard, he too makes a list of “must-do” strategies to be able to create what he claims to be an effective and progressive company plan.

Willmott’s breakdown of “must-do’s” include the following:

Begin with a careful choice on a company type- it is necessary to know what kind of company an entrepreneur would put up. This is simply because of the fact that the goals and activities to be planned would naturally be based upon the type of company an organization is. Certainly, if an entrepreneur decides to establish a servicing organization, then it must be able to plan how his employees would be able to meet the needs of the possible customers especially when it comes to delivery activities.
Identify the stake holders of the company [the customers and employees as well as the organization]-  Once the organization is established, it would be vital to know what or who the stakeholders of a company is. The fact that every company exists for a reason,
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an organization must be able to meet the needs of all its stake holders. As for example, a servicing company must provide not only the needs of its clients but also its employees and the administration that governs it. In this regard, the demands of the customers and the employees should be outlined as well as with the needs of the organization from the business structure it has established. The plan as mentioned earlier would much likely depend upon these factors making the organization a more reliable and dependable company for the society.

Create a table of limitations and follow through- like what Hugh said, Willmott agrees that organizations, although designed in a perfect way still it is subjected to many limitations. Especially when the issue is related with financial deficiencies. In following through all these limitations, it would be necessary for the administration who are formulating the plan to duly adjust goals and expectations regarding the company pursuits.
Be reasonable, find ways in which an activity could fit in with the limitations of the organization- As mentioned a while back, there are limitations, and considering all these limitations, an organization must be able to set practical and reasonable ways to fit in some
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essential business activities within the schedule of the organization. This is to mainly meet the goals of the organization while doing away with the hazards and the stress in not making it to the set standards of the business.

(Source: Peter Willmott. (2001). Total Productivity Maintenance: A Route to World-Class Performance. Newness Publishing Company. )

Having been able to consider the said points of focus, the planning process of an organizational establishment would prove to be effective. As clearly defined by Willmott ,”designing an activity plan for an organization is more likely close as to how complexx is the work of architects in planning and designing several architectural designs. If a building is strong, it means that the architect who designed its features have well planned the outcome. This theory goes well with business entrepreneurs, if the business has a strong and successful outcome as it competes with other business organizations, then this simply means that the plan designed as the organization was established is surely an effective and practical plan” (23).

Tim Koller’s book regarding “Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies” refers to the planning process as the “most exciting” part of any process of establishing a business organization (9).

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Surely, being able to plan in advance to be able to foresee the future of the organization is a fascinating experience for new entrepreneurs.

Furthermore, Koller states that there is a reason why planning should be taken as a much exciting event in company management rather than simply a stressful task (13). In this way, the managers setting up the plan would indeed be more enthusiastic than bored and stressed out with the duty. To her, the task being completed in managerial duties are more of an opportunity to make strategies for success be applied for the better results of business activities designed to drive profit towards the organization (45). In this manner, the emotional and psychological dispositions of the managers directly affect the plan they are making. In fact, with the study that Koller made, she found out that almost 68 percent of managers who enjoy their job are more prone to having better results from their completed tasks (46).

In a way, this statement of Koller may not be that appealing to the topic being discussed in the study. But seeing that the ability of the managers to perform their duty affects the decisions they make, it would be much reliably necessary to obtain several point discussed by this author which may help in the process of meeting the needs for excellent managing process especially with regards to route scheduling.

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Here are some traits of a good leader, which must be obtained by an excellent manager:

·         Having a well balanced view in seeing the needs and the missions of the organization; by doing so, a manager would be able to understand and clearly comprehend with what kind of business plan a certain organization needs.

·         Keeping clear focus on the organization’s priorities would help in the manager’s purpose to provide the organization with an exceptional and worthwhile plan.

·         Having the ability to understand the need to make possible plan alternatives having in mind that the organization has several limitations; a manager could be able to plan ahead for unforeseen occurrences in the future regarding the organization’s preset activities.

(Source: Tim Koller. (2005). Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies. Wiley Publishing Company. )

With the three attributes effectively and efficiently used by

managers of an organization, the plans to be made would surely become more applicable and reasonable for the numerous business activities of  specific organization.

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After knowing and understanding the points of  consideration presented by authors regarding the importance of knowing how to manage

and plan for a business which helps in attaining a strategic way of business activity organization, it would be much helpful to know how business experts view the importance of time. In this way, the process of the study would become more specifically focused on how business organizations could balance their time in an aim to meet the deadlines set for completing that tasks they agree with between their own administration and the customers as well.

Understanding the Importance of time

Time is a special factor of success especially for servicing industries. The ability to balance time in a manner of using effective schedule makes it possible for servicing companies to meet the needs of their clients while being able to attain and gain profits for the company. “Time means Gain” as usually referred to by business entrepreneurs is indeed true as this fact could be seen in the actual transactions of business firms in the global market. Neglecting time may result to great losses for a specific organization.

Regarding this issue, Hal F. Rosenbluth’s book on “Care to Compete?: Secrets from America’s Best Companies on Managing With

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People and Profits in Mind”, she points out that time is a ‘gold mine’ for business entities. Instead of simply referring to time as a factor of business activities, Rosenbluth referred to the said factor of business as an important source of  a considerable reputation for business organizations as their reliability is measured by their effective and systematic use of time (14).

Surely, many entrepreneurs would agree that in every step they take as they continue in providing the consumers with what they demand for, they always run after time. It is through the misuse of time do many businesses lose large amount of financial fund as well as supposed revenues. This is why it is very important to give attention to how an organization tends to use time in a wise manner.

Another author named Timothy C. Kister write a book regarding the wise use of time in the business industry. And with regard to this, he outlined a number of points to consider with regards to the strategies used by business administrators. These are as follows:

·         Plan ahead- everything must be organized to be able to control time wastage; with the fact that everything is planned it would be much easier to meet and complete the tasks

;

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needed to be fulfilled at a certain span of allotted time for completion.

·         Set time allowances- this is to allow an extension for due date which could help in doing away with the stressful manner of meeting and doing duties for company workers and administrators as well.

·         As all of the activities of business organization require systematic approach in the usage of time, it is important to have alternative activities to replace canceled appointments- this doesn’t necessarily mean that there would be no time for break from work. OF course break times are supposed to be preset for the sake of relaxation. However when it comes to the work hours, there should not be an idle time as the moment could be wasted. Instead of simply sitting down doing nothing just in case a preset appointment is canceled, an alternative activity should replace the lost one. This is in aim of making the best possible use of time.

·         ‘It’s also important to breathe”- although it has been said not to be idle, there should be an allotted three to five minute relaxation periods every now and then. This is to be able to

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renew the power of the workers. As obviously known to all, too much work also exhausts a person which makes his job a less-quality product.

·         ‘Make the best out of everything’- being able to be productive at an appointed time makes an employee an asset to the business organization. This fact also helps an organization to become highly reliable when it comes to quantitative production and transactions.

(Source: Timothy C. Kister. (2005). Maintenance Planning and Scheduling: Streamline Your Organization for a Lean Environment. Butterworth-Heinemann.)

With the applications of the idealisms regarding time as suggested by Rosenbluth, an organization is sure to become a top leading firm when it comes to prompt completion of duties. There is another issue yet to consider regarding this matter. True, there are numerous suggestions regarding time being viewed in balance by business entrepreneurs. But there is a more serious factor to be discussed when it comes to actually balancing time.

Regarding that, the book “Project Scheduling under Limited Resources: Models, Methods, and Applications” authored by Sonke

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Hartmann gives certain guidelines on this matter. According to this author, ‘balancing time may not be easy, but once the administrators get to know the essential factors to be considered in doing this task, making schedules would not be as hard as it seemed” (19).  In the fourth chapter of this book entitled “making it on time” displays the following outline:

·         Set a quota for a day- this may refer to sales of products or services offered to consumers in a daily basis. A quota determines the specific quantity of sales and transactions, which should be aimed by business companies every day. In this way, the time would be use much better and profits cold be earned faster in a stable manner.

·         Stick by the rules-  as quotas are set at a certain quantity, employees as well as the administrators should be able to recognize the importance of following the profit-measure set for a day. Considerations may be given to those who could not make it as the day ends, but this doesn’t mean that the lack of strategic methods for the said employees would continuously be tolerated. Instead, this means that everyone is accountable for his or her own works. Certain sanctions

;

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should be arranged for those who cannot follow through with the rule.

·         Assure Quality along with Quantity factors- with the ample time used wisely by business organizations, every product produced within those allotted moments should be of high quality at the same time. Whether it may be a tangible product or service, it should be able to meet the expected results of both the company and the customers.

·         Keep regular track of activities- every now and then, an appointed personnel should see to it that the scheduled events and activities for the days are being fulfilled by the people expected to complete them. In this manner, time would not be wasted t any point since every part of the daily schedule would be accomplished at the end of the day.

(Source: Sönke Hartmann. (2000). Project Scheduling under Limited Resources: Models, Methods, and Applications. Springer; 1 edition.)

True, as mentioned by Hartmann, the guidelines listed above may look to be so perfect that at the moment of reading them a person may claim at once that the application of the said principles are nearly impossible to consider. However, if the guidelines would be given a

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chance to be applied at reasonable measure, then favorably fine results could be expected well.

IN the book of Michael Pinedo entitled “Planning and Scheduling in Manufacturing and Services”, he said that “one of the main points of consideration in any type of business entity is the usage and effective utilization of time by the members of the organization” (46). Indeed as mentioned by other authors a while back, time is designed to measure a company’s ability to provide their consumers with their demands (84).

In his book, he also discusses the certain points that must be identified by organizations as a measure of their reliability and prestige in the business industry. Mainly, Pinedo makes a clear description of time as a gauge of an organization’s capability of doing its responsibility to the society. Indeed, he said that “as a business firm keeps up with their effective use of time, they remain in the roster of successful entities in the business industries” (89).

On the other hand, R. Gary Parker talks about the Deterministic Scheduling Theory in his book that goes with the same title. The said theory states that “a careful plan made to meet a certain goal could be foreseen easily if it is based upon the validity of the time it  is supposed to be performed” (2). This means that with a definite time appointed for the

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completion of a plan, that plan is sure to be commenced and completed in a specific and effective measure of  successful results.

It is also by this theory that Parker shows the difference between a servicing and a manufacturing company. According o his analysis, although both type of business organizations are affected by time, not both organizations face the same challenges in meeting their goals. These factors of challenges directly affect the ability of each organization to meet their required needs in attaining their preset goals for the business (92). According to the same author, these challenges are much more directed to the servicing organizations. This is because of the fact that servicing companies are engaged in many external business transactions, which include product delivery to people in their homes (92). In this matter, transportation routes as well as traffic could become major factors to the hindrance of the fulfillment of their tasks. Not to mention all the financial issues connected with fuel and mobile maintenance activities connected with delivery tasks of servicing organizations.

True, the things mentioned by Parker would help in seeing the clearly what factors would contribute to a lesser productive servicing organization and what factors would be able to aggravate the sales and the revenue of a certain business firm.

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Suggestions for Effective Route Scheduling

In the book entitled “4 Routes to Entrepreneurial Success”, four main factors are introduced, which are known to contribute to the success of business organizations. In this regard, the said four factors of success are as follows:

·         Planning ahead of time

·         Applying what was planned in a systematic and effective way

·         Keeping in mind the goals of the institution towards success

·         Pushing through with the plan although hindrances arise by using alternative set ups

(Source: John B. Miner. (1996). The 4 Routes to Entrepreneurial Success. Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 1st ed edition)

In this regard, according to Miner, the four routes of success listed above should be treated as pathways to being able to meet the challenges of the business industries (87). If in case those four items of concern would be given attention to, then businesses engaged in servicing tasks or even manufacturing would become more successful at that.

Meanwhile, the “Handbook of Scheduling: Algorithms, Models, and Performance Analysis’ by James H. Anderson, discusses the importance

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of a servicing company’s ability to formulate or arrange a schedule with regards to the servicing  their clients. According to him, the mathematics of scheduling business activities does not simply rely on the task itself. Instead, it is based upon the utilization of the other factors contributing to the delay or the fast fulfillment of the job of the company (51). This means that the factors mentioned earlier such as the transportation routes and costs should also be considered in setting the schedule.

Here are some of the recommendations outlined by Anderson in his book:

·         Check the resources of the organization available for utilization for servicing duties.

·         Make sure that the resources found or identified would contribute to a faster and more efficient way of servicing to the organization’s clients.

·         Identify the necessary limitation of the organization regarding the services they intent to provide; by doing so a company makes sure that there are certain leeway  allotted as an allowance for their organization to adjust during certain situations.

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·         Enlist all the cost of the money, which would be spent in order to attain the best possible way of transport for delivery activities. Doing such a task would allow the organization to determine whether it would be advisable for them to take into consideration, the delivery activities on their company plan.

·         Do not always depend on the “first come first serve” basis”.

The said principle in business may not be always applicable for all the business sectors in the business industry. As for servicing companies, the principle is followed basing from the closest client to their headquarters. In this way, costs of transportation are reduced and products are delivered faster.

·         Make it a point that priorities are well laid. Being able to outline the necessary informations about the priorities of an organization in reaching its goals helps the employees realize the reason of their work. As for example, if the servicing company prioritizes the wants, the demands and the expectations of the customer, the employees are encouraged to perform excellent jobs especially when it comes to providing the clients with what they need.

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(Source: James H. Anderson. (2004). Handbook of Scheduling: Algorithms, Models, and Performance Analysis. Chapman ; Hall/CRC.)

Furthermore, Anderson adds:” As the clients are satisfied with “on time” services, the companies are well regarded to become the community’s choice when it comes to their specialty or their field (54).

As a result, servicing companies would gain more consumers than ever. Another book written by James L. Ritchie-Dunham entitled: “Managing from Clarity: Identifying, Aligning and Leveraging Strategic Resources” discusses the same genre of issue. According to the author, “route scheduling could be the most complex duties of the management team, it is a task needed to be faced daily to be able to complete all the appointments set for the day” (47). Surely, this is the reason why scheduling routes involve a lot of time, effort and systematic approach. However, once the approach to such schedule of activities has already been formulated, there would be more meaningful and fruitful results that could be expected. Making this possible though naturally requires some necessary skills of planning and management. Here are some skills and knowledgeable ideas suggested by Dunham the chapter of his book entitled “Making Successful Activities Happen for Profit”:

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·         Be able to know the entire territory touched by the services offered by the organization. Through this way, the management could create an effective map of route needed t reach the said territories.

·         Be enthusiastic in knowing who among the residents in the neighborhood or the community usually use the services of the organization. This would help the team to create a practical route-map.

·         Have an eye for progress. If the scheduling team are able to determine the usual customers for the company, it would also be helpful to know about the possible clients in the future. This would naturally be based upon the new customers coming in and out of the organization’s establishment.

·         Have the ability to incorporate multi-tasking in the job of planning the activities. This involves being able to see the goal of the organization while carrying over all the limitations and assets of the organization in performing the activities they are supposed to complete.

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(Source: James L. Ritchie-Dunham,. (2001). Managing from Clarity: Identifying, Aligning and Leveraging Strategic Resources. John Wiley ; Sons Publishing Company.)

With all these abilities, a scheduling team is sure to create an effective schedule as well as route of the servicing activities of the organization. But other organizations are still under the traditional way of scheduling process. For this reason, Michael A. Milgate wrote a book entitled “Transforming Corporate Performance: Measuring and Managing the Drivers of Business Success”. According to him, through the use of technology, the activity concerning scheduling activities would be much more effective and efficient compared to the results that are usually gathered from the traditional way of making a schedule (Milgate, 54).  Yes, indeed, with the use of technology, scheduling activities would be much faster and more efficient. Here are some advantages outlined by Milgate regarding the use of technology in scheduling activities:

·         Computers are designed to help people with their duties. In scheduling activities, recording necessary informations regarding the clients who are regularly use the services offered by the company.

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·         The records kept through the computer could help the scheduling team learn about the necessary factors needed to consider in scheduling visits for delivery services for the said clients.

·         As the computer keeps the records, the scheduling team would be able to analyze the necessary points to consider when activities of service would be commenced for the customers. The limitations could also be carried through the planning since the records are kept systematically.

(Source:  Michael A. Milgate. (2004). Transforming Corporate Performance: Measuring and Managing the Drivers of Business Success. Praeger Publishers.)

As agreed through the book of MIlgate, technology truly aggravates the business activities of a business organization. In this regard, it is also clearly shown by the said author that technology helps in creating a more strategic system in making business activities more fruitful and beneficial for the organization.

Having this in mind, the process of this study would also be shifted from focusing on traditional ways of scheduling activities towards the

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essential factors concerning the technologically  enhanced scheduling process which many servicing companies use today. In this way, the study  would be able to see the advantages and disadvantages of the application of technology in the business appointments of different organizations.

The last author to be introduced in this chapter is Artiba who authored the book entitled: “Planning and Scheduling of Production Systems: Methodologies and applications”. In the said book, Artiba outlines several points of consideration regarding the scheduling process. He said that there exist four major factors contributing to successful scheduling. First, is the availability, second, the time, third, the capability, and fourth is the factor concerning the ability of the scheduling team themselves.

·         Availability- this factor is concerning the available resources of the organization for performing several business activities..

·         Time- is the balanced way in which the organization is able to fix their appointments in place in such a way that everything gets done in time.

·         Capability- is concerned with the limitations and assets of the company in meeting the expectations of their clients.

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·         Ability- includes the skills and talents of the employees embedded with the appointments scheduling and performing processes.

(Source: A. Artiba. (1996). Planning and Scheduling of Production Systems: Methodologies and applications. Springer, 1 edition. )

As the details necessary for effective routing activities and activity scheduling have been carefully outlined in this chapter, it would be easier to present the methodologies performed to come up with the results found in this study. Basing from the suggestions and the details of concern outlined by the authors of the books mentioned in this chapter, the process of the study shall be commenced and closely examined.

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CHAPTER 3- Methodologies

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Approach

In this study, the survey, questionnaire and comparison methods shall be used to be able to come up with the details needed to answer the problems listed in chapter one. The three methods are to be systematically applied and the results should be analyzed well and studied closely to be able to meet the expected outcome.

The survey shall be given to a sample population from servicing companies. This population is made up of company crews and service staff. The survey is made up of random interviews aiming to know what kind of service the crews are asked to do especially regarding delivery demands from the clients. Another way of getting information for this study is through the use of questionnaires, the questionnaires are given to another sample population form the clients usually accepting delivery services from the companies being compared herein. In this manner, systematic sampling is used where only chosen representatives of the population are asked to answer the survey questionnaires. The last and the most basic method used is the comparison between two servicing companies in the Global business. In this regard, the two servicing

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companies used for comparison are Greenwich and McDonald’s. These two companies are known to have servicing activities, and the examination of their servicing strategies could help in the completion of this study. In this way, the said strategies shall be mentioned and measured through the results taken from the survey and questionnaires given out to several sample populations.

Data Gathering Method

As mentioned, the comparison, the survey and the questionnaire methods shall be utilized in completing this study. In doing so, the researcher tried to locate several clients of both companies from the sample community. Once the clients are located, they are visited by the researcher and have them reply to questionnaires asking them to answer two short questions:

·         Is the service you usually get especially with the delivery  activity of the company unsatisfactory, satisfactory or excellent?

·         Do you think they are able to meet your expectations? Yes or no?

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With these two questions, the clients are urged to at least comment

on the service they receive from the two main companies being compared. This method has not been much of a hard work for the researcher since most of the people within the community near the researcher are receiving services from both companies. The other method is through survey method which is mainly directed to crews and company staffs who are giving the service. From each company, there were five delivery personnel and five service staff and three managers chosen to answer three specific questions pertaining to their service. The said questions are as follows:

·         Do you think that the use of application of technology in scheduling delivery routes bring better results for your company? Yes or no?

·         Is the traditional way of scheduling delivery activities still effective in servicing processes today? Yes or No?

·         Is the technological way using computer generated gadgets a better way and more effective process of scheduling delivery activities? Yes or no?

These three questions help the researcher to determine whether

the strategy used by the service providers are effective for servicing processes or not. The results form the answered questionnaires are

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gathered and computed to arrive at a certain specific conclusion which would be shown later in the discussion.

Lastly, the results of the comparative details between McDonald’s and Greenwich fast-food companies is taken from the results of annual reports posted through the company profiles posted through the Internet. As for this matter, the locality of the branches of the two companies examined is the Philippines. This because of the fact that in the said country, there are many problems regarding transportation routes and financial adjustments allotted for delivery purposes. The researcher decided that the utilization of the reports of these branches would show the actual challenges faced by servicing companies in completing their daily tasks.

Database of the Study

As mentioned earlier in this same chapter, the utilization of comparison, survey and questionnaire method was opted by the researcher since they are the ones mostly possible of giving  accurate details with regards to the issue being tackled in this research. As a result, the researcher expected beforehand that the outcome of the study would become much reliable for servicing companies to evaluate and get some ideas from in connection with servicing and delivery strategies.

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Through the use of personal interview and giving of questionnaires, the researcher was able to understand the factors that contribute to a ‘hundred percent customer satisfaction’ principle, which is expected by the customers every time they receive services form the companies mentioned herein. On the other hand, utilizing the Internet as a source for the Annual report of the companies regarding their service measures as well as profits received from the activities had been much practical for the researcher. Mainly because of the fact that the locality of the branches being examined is rather far and thus requires long and impractical expenses of travel. The report posted through the net, which was utilized by the researcher, had been proven authenticated and valid by the companies themselves.

In this regard, the researcher chose to use the results gained from the surveys and other methodological processes done in the study after being able to assure that the results are rather accurate since they are sourced out form valid basis.

Validity of Data

The data gathered as the outcome from all the processes completed by the researcher are indeed valid. This is because of the fact

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that the results were computed, analyzed and were basically based upon valid sources.

Not to mention that all the presentations shown in this study are all authenticated by the author of the study, the sources are also proven accurate since they are taken at the latest possible time. This way, the researcher is able to weigh the differences, the advantages and the disadvantages of several servicing strategies used by the companies being observed, which helps in the accuracy of the details found in this study.

Originality and Limitations of Data

The quality of the details that are outlined in the pages of this research is indeed assured by the researcher to be efficient and true. This is because the author was the exact person who performed all the processes needed to complete the requirements necessary for the accuracy of this study. This main reason proves that all the data presented are applicable in the present time and are usable for servicing companies world wide, especially for those having a hard time meeting deadlines because of issues regarding transportation and financial capabilities.

Although the data presented are assured accurate, there are also some limitations to the matter. As for this matter, the limitation may be

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identified to be the tracked record of the companies regarding their servicing activities during the past years which are not included in the data presented here. Another limitation may refer to the fact that the researcher may have not been able to obtain several details on the servicing processes of the companies since the questionnaires and the surveys used are limited to certain measures alone.

Summary

As obviously seen, the processes used and performed in obtaining the final data in this study is indeed a proof of the determination of the researcher to obtain the best possible result for the study. Surely, the hard work placed by the author in this matter is totally a basis for the fact that the details are assured to be accurate and valid. There have been a lot of challenges faced by the researcher in the process of completion. But the fact that the said methodologies of gaining data have been totally useful for the study, the researcher could assure that the gathered data from the process are posted in efficiency.

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CHAPTER 4- Data Analysis

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Like the apprentice’s broomstick, technology is basically a powerful tool. It can be put to use to make our work easier, more efficient, and perhaps even more enjoyable. But when it is not properly controlled or when it is misused, it, too, can become a force with disastrous, even fatal, consequences.

A prime example of this is the automobile. There is no question that the automobile has brought many advantages and benefits to society in general. Yet, who can deny the harmful side effects, such as air and noise pollution, and deaths and injuries due to accidents and careless driving? This technological innovation is at best a mixed blessing.

But the effect of technology goes much further than that. So pervasive has technology become in our modern world that it is changing not only the way we work and live but also our values, our view of ourselves and of society as a whole. As mentioned by James Anderson:

“Without doubt, in one way or another most people living today have benefited from the advancement of science and technology. In developed and developing nations alike, technology has brought numerous material advantages in nearly every aspect of life.

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First and foremost, the use of machines, fertilizers, pesticides, and improved seeds has increased the food supply and nutrition for much of the world’s population. Advancements in medical science have resulted in better health and a longer life span for many. The automobile and the airplane, along with developments in electronics, computers, and satellites, have made it possible for people to travel and to communicate with others around the world with relative ease. On a more personal level, technology has eliminated much of the drudgery and labor both at work and at home” (Anderson, 98)

Although some people in the technologically advanced countries are fond of talking about the ‘good old days,’ few are ready to give up the vast number of time- and labor-saving devices that they have come to take for granted or have grown accustomed to in their daily lives. Technology has indeed become a useful slave, making it possible, as one observer put it, for ordinary people today to live “as kings of an earlier time never could.”

A discussion on technological leap may seem like a not-so applicable topic for the issue being solved. But seeing closely to how servicing companies accept the fact that technology should be utilized in

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meeting and performing several business activities, these necessary details regarding technology and how it naturally affects the society today, helps in the determination of the most effective procedure of being able to complete delivery tasks in their everyday activities.

Data Presentation

As discussed in chapter three, the methodologies used for completing this study are the comparison, survey and questionnaire strategies. The results for these methodologies are to be presented in the figures that follow:

Results form the Survey
-This is a graphical presentation of the measurement regarding the service presentation and the provision of customer satisfaction based from the opinion of the clients of Greenwich and McDonald’s

Figure 1

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Explanation of data:

As obviously presented through the graph above, it is more often than not that McDonalds is able to incur better results form servicing activities than that of Greenwich.  Based form the survey done by the researcher from the clients, technology has been a great factor in obtaining considerable fine results for McDonalds. This is because of the fact that McDonalds have been reported to be among the companies using better computer generated systems when it comes to servicing their customers. Like what has been discussed by Anderson in his writings, “first come first serve policy’” is not as much applied by the company. Because of the fact that there are some customers who call for delivery later than a other clients but the place of that customer is much near than the other. And having been able to serve the later customers earlier, didn’t put so much difference on how the first customers were served in a much later time, because of the difference in transportation distance that delivery personnels are supposed to take.

Results for Questionnaires
This are the presentation for the measurement of service that the companies are able to give based upon the opinions of the ones actually serving which includes the service staff, the company crews as well as the management team.

Figure 2

Explanation of data

This figure shows that in both companies, many of the crews and staff as well as management staff believe that technology helps in making fine results for the company with regards to the servicing activities they engage with day by day. Along with this, the figure also explains that As McDonalds is able to use the best possible technological strategy available for servicing processes, they have higher rate of agreeing to the matter compared to that of Greenwich.

Surely, this explains the fact that technology is designed well to help even the servicing companies. They are able to locate their clients and have their records kept for useful information in the

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future. In this way, the company would be able to locate them

easier in the future and have options on the routes that they are supposed to take to reach the customers’ place faster and on time. This manner also helps in the financial control planned by the management staff.

Results for the Comparison Processes
These following two figures present the servicing capabilities of both Greenwich and McDonalds in the servicing job:

Figure 3

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Explanation of Data

This data identifies the fact that in many servicing companies, delivery activities have a great share with the revenues incurred by an organization in a day.

This is the reason why many servicing companies should consider the way they are able to serve their clients through deliveries. The products [especially for fast-food organizations] should be received by the consumers in a fine quality. All the time spent in transportation should be limited enough since the products could loose the quality expected form them by the clients. Along with this, the routes are supposed to be carefully chosen not only to control the time of travel but also to save financial funds from fuel expenses.

Along with this, it is also important to understand that, as revenues are being enhanced through delivery services, it is very important for servicing companies to be able to determine the essential expectations of the clients from the service they are supposed to receive. For this fact, the organizations who are able to see these necessary factors of consideration usually gain better results for their profit and revenues as well.

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Figure 4 (annual service report)

Explanation of figure

As shown in the diagram above, the servicing ability of Greenwich in the delivery aspect of business activities have gradually increased. This is due to the fact that every year, the company learns to innovate with the latest technology available to be used by servicing companies. It also helped that the company is open in receiving critical analysis and suggestions from their clients. Indeed, for a fast-food service provider, Greenwich is obviously able to cater to the needs of its clients.

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Figure 5

Explanation of Data

The figure presented above is an indication that in one time, McDonalds lacked some ability to develop their process of service. However, an overall analysis of the figure above indicates that the company also had a continuous process of improvement.

Certainly, the data shows that McDonalds have been able to provide their clients with a considerably excellent service in a measure of six years. AS figure four and five would be compared, it could be identified that both companies incurred developments but still, McDonalds remains more reliable in service deliveries compared to that of Greenwich.

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Overall Analysis

Until quite recently, political and economic ideologists of all tendencies pinned their hopes on scientific progress and technology. We read: “The new technology seemed to fit [free-enterprise capitalism] like a glove and to guarantee the rapid realization of the Utilitarian philosophers’ ideal of ‘the greatest good for the greatest number.’ Even Marx and Engels, approaching from a radically different political orientation, saw in technology nothing but good.”—(Encyclopædia Britannica, 45)

Yes, from the most die-hard capitalist to the most revolutionary communist, men hailed technology as the key to mankind’s future happiness. New and better machines would do away with drudgery. Working hours would be reduced, leaving people with more leisure time for travel, culture or pleasure.

Bewildered, many people have begun to feel that everything is possible with modern science and technology. “Their immense success in producing tangible benefits . . . has caused the whole output of scientists and technologists to be regarded as a sacred cow,” observed science educator John Gibbons. Reflecting such optimism is the statement by U.S. President Ronald Reagan in his 1983 State of the Union address: “As

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surely as America’s pioneer spirit made us the industrial giant of the 20th

century, the same pioneer spirit today is opening up another vast front of opportunity—the frontier of high technology.”

Indeed, technology, as shown in this study is an essential part of positive improvement with regards to the servicing industries. As much as servicing activities are concerned, the view of technology is much more focused upon the positive side of the issue. Yet, it has not been so much referred as also a source of problems for the said business activity. As for example, the production of too much automobiles causes traffic making it harder for deliver personnels to make it on time when they are supposed to provide a delivery service. Financial funds are also at risk because of the fact that technology requires a considerably a large amount of money to obtain state-of-the-art technological inventions that aims to enhance servicing activities of different companies.

Certainly, although technology provide the essential needs for a progressive and developed servicing strategy, it should still be viewed as a necessary factor needed to be examined before it could be implemented within the systems being established as basis of business process in certain business organization.

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Suggestions for Application

Having to train delivery personnels with the essential factors needed to obtain fine or excellent service skills may cause the company a specific amount of financial funds for the support of the said activity. But although this is the case, the results for the said activity would indeed be rewarding for the organization who would implement it. Of course, through this, it could be understood that the skills of the delivery personnels would be enhanced thus making it more possible for them to meet deadlines on time in an efficient way.

The fine results gained from the trainings, which would be implemented by the company, would naturally result to a better reputation with the community or the society seeing the positive results of the training. They would be able to appreciate how the servicing companies ‘go for an extra mile’ to be able to give excellent provision for the customers with regards to the service they intend to deliver.

It is also advisable for companies to take positive steps in obtaining maps of possible route in reaching the different destinations around the community where most of the clients are located. Through this, a more systematic way of reaching the clients could be implemented, and deadlines could be met easier and in a more efficient way.

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CHAPTER 5 –Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary of the Study

Rising unemployment has resulted in fierce competition for the jobs available. “It’s a startling, frightening picture, with the haves pitted against the have-nots,” lamented William F. Haddad of the New York Board of Trade. College graduates, it was explained, are now competing with school dropouts and welfare recipients for the shrinking number of beginning-level jobs.

Other countries are also affected by soaring unemployment. It is at its highest level since the 1930’s depression in Australia. France has more people out of work than at any time since World War II. Nearly 300,000 employees of the western European auto makers were jobless in December, and, since about one job in ten in Europe depends on the auto industry, the consequences are devastating.

Unemployment was recently reported at 2.7 percent in Britain. However, that figure includes only full-time, primary earners who have lost their jobs through no fault of their own, whereas in the U.S. the unemployment figure represents all persons seeking work but who cannot find it. So, actually, employment authority Raymond S. Livingstone claims, unemployment in Britain is worse than in the United States.

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Today there is widespread fear that another destructive depression could be starting. The U.S. Labor Department announced that during Christmas week 813,600 more persons filed initial claims for unemployment insurance, the highest weekly total since such assistance was started in the latter part of the Great Depression.   The tragedy, however, is considerably less than during the Great Depression, when many laid-off workers had fears of not having the next day’s food, or next month’s rent. Now a person can often obtain unemployment insurance, company benefits and, in cases of extreme need, welfare assistance. Last year, for example, an autoworker laid off by General Motors received 95 percent of his regular salary in company benefits and unemployment insurance for a period of eight months. But the benefits of these are most likely does not last for so long. This is the reason why many people simply resort to creating their own businesses. In this manner, because of the fact that many people require several demands, new business entrepreneurs are challenged in what kind of business should they put up. Since working people are busy and often do not have time for a long trip to the market, they will patronize small local stands that sell fruit or vegetables. Some stand owners even have a delivery service, taking fresh vegetables right to the homes of customers. Word can spread quickly that

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the business owner is honest and that it sells quality products. Be careful, however, not to charge too much, or people will simply return to the regular market.

Another report on unemployment states that in New York city, unemployment is even higher than in the nation as a whole. Yet many jobs there were going begging. One of the city’s largest employment agencies in January was even offering premiums such as radios, watches and hair dryers to anyone recommending an applicant who eventually was placed in a job by the agency. Why do available jobs go unfilled?

One reason is that the jobs do not pay enough. The owner of an employment agency, who said that he had many jobs but no takers, explained: “People tell me, ‘How can you live on this kind of money? I get more on unemployment insurance and I don’t have to pay carfare and buy lunches.’” However, when unemployment benefits start running out, people will be forced to take such lower-paying jobs and adjust their life-style accordingly.

Pointing to another reason why certain jobs go begging, a youth in Boise, Idaho, said: “People just don’t want them. Most of them are hard manual jobs.” Also, some persons consider the available jobs demeaning,

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beneath their dignity.

Perhaps the major reason, though, that jobs go unfilled is that applicants do not qualify for them. A worker at a New York employment placement center noted that there were openings for skilled machinists, auto-body repairmen, auto mechanics, furniture finishers, glaziers and screw-machine operators. Another placement center representative said: “There are still shortages of secretaries, stenographers and bookkeepers.”

As said earlier, other people opt in creating their own businesses. Some questions are to be considered in the matter of choosing the type of business, which an entrepreneur could be establishing. As based form an article published by Awake! Magazine, here are some questions to be considered:

For example, do you live near the ocean or near a fish market? Why not offer to clean fish—quickly and at low cost? All you need is a good block of wood and a fine fish knife. Car washing is another profitable enterprise. Needed equipment?

A bucket, some water, a little soap, and a good cloth. In Dakar, business-minded youths can be seen on almost all parking lots and on many a shaded street performing this service.

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Is running water scarce in your part of the world? Sometimes

women line up for hours at a common water fountain to have their containers filled. Then they have to transport the heavy basins on their heads all the way home. Many are therefore willing to pay someone who will deliver the water to them. The trick is getting to the water fountain early in the morning so that you can fill your

containers and load them onto a hand-pushed or donkey-pulled

cart. Now you are ready to deliver the water to homes or work sites.

Do you have some secular schooling? Perhaps you could offer to tutor young children on weekends. Classrooms tend to be crowded in developing lands, and parents may be willing to pay for their child to receive some personal attention.

Another useful skill you may already have is the art of hair braiding. Since braided hair styles are quite popular among women in Africa, there is a market for people skilled at this craft.

(Source: Creating Jobs in Developing Countries. (1994). Awake! Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Brooklyn New York)

As obviously seen through these reports, as unemployment rises, the need for creation of businesses and jobs becomes more acceptable

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these days. In this regard, because of the fact that servicing activities are more applicable for the present situation, many new business entrepreneurs opt in establishing servicing organizations.

In this study, the basis of research have been the performance of two globally known servicing companies in the food industry, namely,

McDonalds and Greenwich. The surveys done and the methodologies

used for collecting data proved that servicing activities require more than just knowing what to give the consumers. It should be also clear to the entrepreneur that there are other concepts or factors of service that should be considered in the job.

The said factors are as follows:

Time availability- Of course, as repeatedly mentioned in this study, time is among the most important factor of business success. And there a lot of ways in which a business entity could be able to control and balance his time. Certainly, if the time is wisely used and controlled by the business administrators, then it would bring them great results with regards to the profit gain and reputation improvement.

Route Knowledge- Every entrepreneur holding a servicing business must know the fact that one of the challenges of the job is

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regarding the effective way of using the allotted routes for delivery in such an effective way.

Client Knowledge- Every servicing organization must be able to know their clients well and what their customers demand from

them. In this way, they would be able to provide their customers with the necessary expectations they have from the business.

Indeed, the said factors are necessary to be taken into consideration. Certainly, the new servicing business would become much successful in its own field.

Another point of consideration is the fact that every year, each business organization is expected to improve the services that they provide their clients. As shown in the annual reports of McDonalds and Greenwich with their servicing abilities, it is necessary that every year, every organization is expected to continuously develop as it learns from the past performances it had been able to display for the previous years of service.

Surveys and random interviews with the stakeholders of the organization also help in this concern regarding development. It always pay to know what the clients want and what they expect from the company. These surveys also intend to serve as measurement of the

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service provided by the organization. Through the use opinion analysis, the business entity could be able to take full responsibility with the necessary adjustments needed by the organization to take in an aim to reach the peak of its servicing responsibilities.

Recommendations

Since this study is bounded with limitations, it is very important that other researchers continue the said study. This is based on a goal of creating much more effective ways in facing the challenges of route scheduling for service organizations aside from the ones already mentioned herein. Another point of consideration for this matter are the factors needed to consider when the location of the organizations discussed are among the countries joined within the territories of the ‘third world’, because most likely, these countries are facing more serious problems on transportation issues compared to that of the more developed countries.

This is due to the fact that these countries have lesser funds to provide for better transportation routes for businesses. In this regard, it would more likely be effective to use their example in facing the problems. True, the researcher of this paper had been able to use the company branches of Greenwich and McDonalds in the Philippines as a basis of

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data analysis but the deeper examination of the routing system within the

said country has not been thoroughly observed by the author of this study. Several other studies could still be formulated to be able to meet this requirement.

Other researchers should continuously examine an elaboration of the matter regarding the advantages and the disadvantages of technology in this aspect of business activities in the future. Indeed, the said further studies could help in the expansion of the knowledge of business entrepreneurs regarding the topic.

Finally, it would be helpful if other researchers would be able to find better ways of making it possible for business organizations to make the best use of time, availability, equipment and skill in servicing activities.

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Conclusion

Overall, this study mainly shows how possible it is to be able to schedule and organize the routes of service of a servicing business organization. Indeed, making adjustments possible for implementation helps in the ability of the organization to provide delivery services to their client.

Through the data collected form the different methodologies used in

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this study, it has been presented how possible it is for servicing

companies to survive the challenges of their job. Thus showing that if the scheduling of activities would be taken seriously by business organizers, then the goal of the whole organization of providing excellent service to its clients could be easily attained. Another point to consider is that the data which were collected naturally helps entrepreneurs to understand the importance of planning ahead of time. In doing so, the activities of the organization are preset and are better completed because of the fact that they are already pre-appointed.

It could also be learned from this study that it is very important for servicing companies to be able to meet the expectations of their customers, it should never be  underestimated that the value of building up a fine reputation as an honest, reliable and industrious worker, or

organization is an important factor of consideration for many business administrators. Even in lands where good jobs are scarce and the annual per capita income is very low, the honest, industrious worker and business organization fares much better than others. A worker or a business entity at that may not have much, but the reputation they gain from giving excellent service, earns them the needed and considerably fine profit they need to continue the operation of their firm.

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Indeed, A society in which the central drive is profit by growth generates a competitive race between businesses, accelerating them toward the status of gigantism. Vanishing is the influence of the small tradesman whose store was his empire, the artisan whose skill was his wealth, the farmer who owned his acres and was greatly self-sufficient. “This is the age of the vast multibillion-dollar corporation,” writes Fred J. Cook in his book The Corrupted Land. “It is, increasingly, the age of the computer and automation. . . . The result has been not just that the individual has been driven into a corporate existence, but that the small

corporation has been driven into the larger. This irreversible thrust toward the creation of ever more awesome structures of power has featured the entire post-World War II era” (79).

From 1950 to 1960 more than a thousand major American businesses merged. The pace accelerated during the 1960’s. Well over two thirds of United States industry (transportation, manufacturing, mining and utilities) today is controlled by just a few hundred corporations. A mere 316 manufacturing corporations employ 40 percent of all working Americans.

To author Erich Fromm it is a frightening reversal of order: “What is

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;

alive are the organizations, the machines; . . . man has become their slave rather than being their master.” Men become no more than well-oiled cogs in the machines: “The oiling is done with higher wages, fringe benefits, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and human-relations experts; . . . none of his feelings or his thoughts originate with himself; none is authentic. He has no convictions, either in politics, religion, philosophy. . . . He identifies himself with the giants and idolizes them as the true representatives of his own human powers, those of which he has dispossessed himself” (21-22)

Another reason some businessmen feel trapped in their job is that

they cannot manufacture products of the high quality that they would like to. The trend is toward “planned obsolescence.” This means that the

producer makes his product somewhat shoddy on purpose, but not obviously so. Thus, the product wears out sooner and the customer will

have to buy another. This practice is called by a writer on economics “an integral part of the American economy.”

As for example, General Motors turned other corporations green with envy when it led the auto industry into adopting the “planned

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obsolescence‘’ policy of changing models of cars every year. One critic

commented that pioneer auto builder Henry Ford, with his idea of building a car that would last for years, would be “a positive national menace today.”

Outstripping all of “free enterprise” combined is governmental spending on arms, called “a delightful stimulant to the economy in a society of waste because military weapons become so quickly obsolescent and must be perpetually renewed.”

Indeed, the details written inhere regarding the fact that many business entities are involved in competition, it should be recognized by the business administrators of servicing companies, that there is a strong need for them to be able to get at an edge against other servicing

organizations to be able to remain in the race for business reputation. Surely, if this matter is taken into serious consideration, it would be more likely, easier for business firms to see their future to be a successful and fruitful one, not only for themselves but also for their clients.

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