MIP and MPLS Parameters Essay

MIP and MPLS Parameters
(Time for processing update): Time which is needed by a node in order to update its binding cache by importing (adding) a new entry in its binding cache or deleting an entry or modifying.
(Time for processing label packet): Time which is needed by a node for adding or removing or swapping a label to a packet. The label is used for the promotion/forwarding of packet and the processing time includes any one of the three functions.
(Time for processing update table): The time which is needed by a node in order to renew its table by importing a new entry that represents LSP that has been established between two nodes.
Two parameters are defined for table modification, since processing time is defferent since the Routing table is for storing IP addresses and label table for MPLS labels.
a. Routing table
b. Label table
(Time processing): This time is defined as the maximum time that is required by a single node for the processing of some concrete activity. This parameter is used when a node performs any activity such as looking into tables and caches, scan air interface for a new BS by an MN or examination of LER/FA’s IP address by the MN or LER/FA to stop buffering mechanism except sending message.
(Time for propagation): The time that is required for the distribution/propagation of a message until a particular message is sent to its final destination. This time is influenced to a large extent by the number of links (not nodes) that is found in the path of transport. The total time of distribution is calculated as follows: . is fixed as the maximum/largest time that is required by a single link for the transmission of message. The time for propagation is influenced by both, but total time for distribution depends on the number of links not nodes because a node may have multiple links. The number of links actually covered by a packet of message determines the data time not the number of nodes. This is explained in an example figure below, which has 11 nodes but 26 links through which data can travel. The length of each link can be different which contributes to the time. This is why I have divided the link names in the original parameter list. However, you should understand that the basic building blocks of any protocol architecture e.g. LER/FA, BS etc. remain the same, so there is no difference essentially between the time for new or old LER/FA and BS. It could be of course different for a complicated network but for a simple network which is simulated for this project, please keep these as same as it is anyways hinted in the figure you intend to use
: The time that is required for the establishment of LSP between two nodes. This time is influenced to a large extent by the number of links between the nodes that participate in the establishment of LSP. The total time of establishment of LSP between two nodes is fixed as follows: . is fixed as largest time that is required by each node for the establishment of LSP. (In MMMPLS this fact is really important because the protocol says that the lsp is established only between an LER/FA and an LERG, so the time for lsp would be constant for every lsp set up which may or may not be the case for other protocols which would be analyzed)
: Number of Links/Hops between two nodes
(Time for processing check): The time that is required by the MAP or the HA or any similar node in order to look at its table and connect/relate to its binding cache, the RCoA with the LCoA of MN (local care of address which is maintained by HA) replaced by tproc
(Total time of propagation): The total time of distribution that is required for the complete operation of a concrete activity.
(Total time for processing): The total time of processing that is required for the complete operation of a concrete activity. –
: Number of links between MN and LER/FA
: Number of links between MN and LERG
: Number of links between LER/FA and LERG
: Number of links from LERG to HA
: Number of links from LERG to BS
: Number of links from BS to MN
: Number of links between (new/old) LER/FA and new BS
: Number of links between MN and new LER/FA
: Number of links between new LER/FA and LERG
: Number of links between MN and old LER/FA
: Number of links between new LER/FA and old LER/FA
: Number of links between FA and LERG. Which FA?
: Number of links between FA and LER/FA
: Number of links between FA and MN
: Number of links between remaining FAs and MN

Micro-Mobile MPLS (Integration of MIP & MPLS by using hierarchical architecture)
7. Langar, Bouabdallah and Tohme (2006) give the analysis of Micro-Mobile MPLS, which integrates Mobile IP and MPLS protocols using a two level hierarchy. At the higher level is the LERG, which performs the role of an edge Label Switching Router (LSR) filtering between intra- and inter-domain signalling. At the second level is the LER/FA connected to several BSs that offer link-layer connectivity. Their proposal has two variants. In the first variant, called FH-Micro Mobile MPLS, we consider the fast handoff mechanism, which anticipates the LSP procedure setup with the neighboring subnets to reduce service disruption. In the second variant, called FC-Micro Mobile MPLS, the forwarding chain mechanism, which is a set of forwarding paths, is provided to track efficiently the host mobility within a domain. The forwarding chain can reduce registration update cost and provide low handoff latency. (advantages)

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Mobile Node Registration in Micro Mobile MPLS

a. MN sends solicitation message to LER/FA and receives Advertisement message from it which takes time
b. When an MN moves for the first time into a Micro-mobile MPLS foreign domain, it sends a mobile IP registration request message to the nearest LER/FA taking a time
c. The LER/FA records this MN’s home address in its routing table taking a time of
d. The LER/FA then relays the registration message to the LERG of this domain taking a time of
e. When LERG gets the registration message, and knows the Regional care-of address (RCoA) which corresponds to the IP address of the current LER/FA, the LERG sends a registration message to the HA of the MN taking a time of
f. The LERG uses its IP address as the CoA to perform the global registration for the inter-domain mobility taking a time . This is a process done by a node.
g. The LERG modifies its label table for this LSP taking a time of
h. Then the LERG establishes an LSP between it and the current LER/FA with the RCoA as the FEC taking a time
i. The LERG receives a registration reply from HA which takes time
j. The LERG then relays the registration reply to LER/FA along the established LSP which takes time
k. LER/FA then relays the registration reply message to BS taking time which in turn sends the registrations reply to MN taking a total time of
The MNs which are on the same subnet and which involve the same requirements of QoS can use the same established path.
Resultant Equations
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ + +

+ + + + + + + + ———— (1)

Packet Delivery Procedure
a. After registration LERG changes the row in its label table that uses the MN home address as FEC and sets the empty outgoing label and outgoing port entries to the values of the outgoing label and outgoing port of the LSP from the LERG to the current LER/FA. This takes time (this time was added at the Registration procedure at point g, not needed here) Hence, LERG can now relay packets destined to the MN home address to its current location in the foreign network which would take time
Hence, Total time for packet delivery after registration would be

Handoff Support procedure in Micro Mobile MPLS
There are two types of handoff in the scheme: Intra-LER and Inter-LER handoffs. An Intra-LER handoff occurs when the MN moves between two BSs managed by the same LER/FA. This kind of handoff is basically L2 (link-layer) handoff. An Inter-LER handoff occurs when a new BS and the old BS are under different LER/FAs which is typically L3 (ip/network-layer) handoff.

Intra-LER handoff
a. Once the received signal strength from the AP falls below the threshold level and the association to the current BS is lost, the MN sends a Movement signalling message to the current LER/FA with a time of , to notify an imminent L2 handoff, which initiates the buffering mechanism and stores in-flight packets (Probably lost during the handoff period). The time taken for this is given by (for initiating buffer mechanism) + (for storing packets) (since for buffering mechanism and storage may be modification of in-flight packets).
b. Then, the MN will scan the air interface for a new BS taking time . If it finds one, it will register at layer 2 with that BS and either wait for a Mobile IP Advertisement message sent from the LER/FA or it will issue a Mobile IP Solicitation message. This process takes (Since one of the two cases is followed). In any case, the MN examines the LER/FA’s IP address . This address is the same as before Intra-LER handoff, which means that the MN is under the same IP subnet.
c. The MN issues a local interface-update message in the subnet to which the MN belongs taking time , so that all stations in the same subnet, especially the current LER/FA, update their ARP (Address Resolution Protocol – this protocol is used to associate an IP address to a hardware MAC address. Each device on a network has at least two addresses: a media access control (MAC) address, and an Internet Protocol (IP) address. The MAC address is the address of the physical network interface card inside the device, and never changes for the life of the device) cache, taking time (Concrete activity by a number of nodes)
d. The current LER/FA stops the buffering mechanism (to stop the buffering mechanism a single cycle instruction is needed which takes very less time may be micro second, since we are dealing in milli-second there is no need to add any timing for this) and forwards in-flight packets destined for the MN toward the new BS. This takes time (Since packets are essentially messages of some kind). It must be noted that an Intra-LER handoff is basically an L2 handoff and also no message is sent to the LERG to take advantage of the common path between it and the LER/FA.
The LERG will continue to use to use the old LSP between it and the current LER/FA to send packets to the MN.
Total handoff time in this case is given by
+ + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + ——- (3)

Inter-LER Handoff

a. New LER/FA sends advertisement message to MN which takes time
b. When the MN examines the LER/FA’s IP address from the Advertisement message taking time it finds that this address differs from the old one, which means that it has entered a new IP subnet, thus it sends a registration request to the new LER/FA in time and performs steps which is same as in the registration procedure
c. The New LER/FA records this MN home address in its routing table taking a time of
d. It relays the registration message to the LERG of this domain taking a time of
e. At the same time, the MN sends a Handoff notification message to the old LER/FA (via the new LER/FA) and old LER/FA responds back with a handoff acknowledgement which both messages take a total time of
f. When the old LER/FA receives its notification message it stops the buffering mechanism and forwards the in-flight packets destined for the MN to the new subnet. This takes time (Since packets are essentially messages of some kind). Thus in this case the MN may receive packets from the old LER/FA (via the new LER/FA) before the L3 handoff completes (i.e before receiving the ‘registration reply’ message from the LERG).
g. After this the corresponding label table is updated by the LERG which takes a time
h. LSP is then established between new LER/FA and LERG, which takes a time of
i. LERG then sends the registration reply to the New LER/FA taking and the New LER/FA sends it to the MN along the established LSP taking a time

The total time except the registration period time is
+ + + + +
+ + +
+ + ————– (4)

Handoff in FH (Fast Handoff) Micro Mobile MPLS
This is explained by Langar, Bouabdalaah, Tohme (2006) give the mechanism as below:
a. Once an MN enters an overlapped area of the boundary cells of two subnets, it receives a new L2 beacon from the possible new AP in time But the message is sent from the BS link be Lmn-bs? How is it possible the L2 trigger to be generated from the LERG? Mobile node cannot receive message from any BS directly except it current BS
b. MN notifies the current LER/FA for the possible handoff by sending a handoff initiate signalling message in time , which contains the MAC address of the new AP. The MN is not yet connected to the radio link of the new subnet and is still in connection with the old AP.
c. LER/FA looks into its neighbour mapping table to get the new LER/FA’s IP address in time . A neighbor mapping table is maintained in each LER/FA that binds IP and MAC addresses of its entire neighbor APs.
d. LER/FA then informs the LERG for the possible handoff operation in time
e. LERG initiates the LSP setup procedure and establishes a passive LSP with the New LER/FA before the L3 handoff occurs i.e before the MN receives the Mobile IP Advertisement message from the New FA, which takes time
f. The current LER/FA informs the MN for the new RCoA (the IP Address of the new possible LER/FA) by sending a Neighbour advertisement signalling message which takes time
g. The MN notifies the current LER/FA to initiate the buffering mechanism (no additional time is needed for buffering because this is only notification) by sending a Movement Signalling message which takes time
h. MN informs its arrival and starts the registration process (time added on the previous point)
i. New LER/FA forwards the Mobile IP Registration Request message to the LERG in time
j. New LER/FA notifies the old LER/FA for the handoff event by Handoff Notification message in time
k. As soon as LERG receives the mobile IP registration request it activates the pre-established passive LSP in time and the traffic is delivered through this.
l. Once the old LER/FA is notified by Handoff Notification message the in-flight packets are forwarded to the MN through the new LER/FA. This takes time (Since packets are essentially messages of some kind, the data travels from newLER/FA -> oldLER/FA -> MN)
I have not added any delays for the following: No registration request reply message, no update in routing table, no reg request from mobile node should I add these times?step2 in figure 2.
Total time for handover is given by
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + + —- (5)

Registration for FH MMPLS

In case of Fast Handoff type Micro Mobile MPLS, the registration process is the same as the basic registration process. However, there are some changes, which make the registration faster. The MN can start the registration process with the LERG before receiving the new Mobile IP advertisement message from the new FA (L3 beacon). Thus, one parameter is reduced. Also, as soon as the MN establishes a physical connection with the new BS, it initiates its registration with the LERG and informs its arrival. Therefore, the pre-established passive LSP will be activated and traffic will be delivered through the activated LSP. Hence, reduces to just one parameter
The registration equations are as follows:

+ + + + + + + ——- (6)

Handoff in FC (Forward Chain) Micro Mobile MPLS
Registration
In this technique, each time that the MN moves to a new subnet, the new RCoA will be registered at the old LER/FA instead of the LERG. By this procedure, the old LSP between the LERG and the old subnet will be extended from the old FA to the new one. Packets travelling toward this MN will be intercepted by the first FA in the chain called Master FA, taking advantage of the existing LSP between the LERG and the master LER/FA, and then forwarded along the chain of FAs to the MN. This scheme enables a significant reduction of the local registration update messages sent by the MN to the LERG. These LERG registrations are replaced by simple forwarding chain updates (local registrations). The equations now do not have the extra messages from LER/FA to LERG.
Location registration procedures
This is explained by Langar, Bouabdalaah, Tohme (2006) give the mechanism as below:
a. When MN moves to a new subnet, it compares the address of the new LER/FA to the address in buffer. Each MN keeps a buffer for storing IP addresses of the visited LER/FAs. If the new address already exists in MN’s buffer, it is extracted otherwise MN records the new LER/FA’s address in its buffer which is updated in time .
b. To avoid delays a threshold on length is set. If the number of movements is smaller than the threshold of the forwarding chain length (Lth), the new LER/FA (RCoA) will be registered at the previous (old) LER/FA, otherwise the New LER/FA registers to the LERG and MN notifies the old LER/FA of the handoff. Else MN registers to LERG and updates its new RCoA to the root of the domain directly taking a time of
c. In addition when this threshold is reached, MN deletes all the addresses in its buffer taking time . That is, the MN forwarding chain will be renewed and the new visited LER/FA becomes the new Master FA.
d. The existing LSP between the LERG and the old subnet will be extended from the old FA to the new one in time
+ + +

Packet delivery procedures
a. If the packets for the MN are intercepted by the LERG, it switches the packets to the master LER/FA using label swapping . Packets travelling towards the MN are intercepted by the first/Master LER/FA in the chain and are then forwarded along the chain of LER/FAs. Each LER/FA re-switches the packets to the next LER/FA of the forwarding chain until the MN’s current serving LER/FA is reached. This takes time

b. The current serving LER/FA strips off the label and sends the packet to the MN taking a time of + .
In case the Threshold is not exceeded, the time for processing would be
+ + + + +

+ + + +
—- (8)
In case the Threshold is exceeded, the time for processing would be
+ + + + + +

+ + + + + +

What shall be done also is to follow the same logic for FH and FC in separating
1. Registration and Packet Delivery and 2. Handoff and Packet Delivery
Total Time
Case- I Intra-LER Handoff (3) + + + + +

Case- II Inter-LER Handoff (4)
+ + + + +
+ + +
+ +
Case III FH MM MPLS (5)

+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
Case IV FC MM MPLS (8) or (9)

Basic Registration (10)
(Time for registration = a+ b+ c+ e+ h + k)
= + + + +
+ +
LSP set up and establishment (11)
(Time for LSP = d+ f+ g+ i+ j)
= + + + +
Intra-LER Handoff
Handover (12)
(Time for Handover = a+ b+ c)
+ + + + + + +
Packet Delivery (13)
(Time for Packet Delivery = d)

Inter-LER Handoff
Handover (14)
(Time for Handover = a+ b+ c+ d+ e+ g+ h)
+ + + + + + +
+ +
Packet Delivery (15)
(Time for Packet Delivery = f)

Handoff in FH Micro Mobile MPLS
Handover (5) (16)
(Time for Handover a+ b+ c+ d+ e+ f+ g+ h+i+j+k)
+ + + +
+ + +
+ +
Packet Delivery (17)
(Time for Packet Delivery =l)

Handoff in FC Micro Mobile MPLS
Case IV FC MM MPLS
Handover
(Time for Handover a+ b+ c+ e+ f+ g)
Case A (threshold not exceeded) (18) + + +
Case B (threshold exceeded) (19) + + + + +
Packet Delivery
(Time for Packet Delivery =d)
Case A (threshold not exceeded) (20)
Case B (threshold exceeded) (21)
Timing data for each of the process involved in sending a packet from CN to MN is as below:
, , , , , ,

The number of links is taken as below. HA is assumed as the old LER/FA.
(Since we are assuming that a minimum of 2 nodes (MN and CN can be within a BS, which is at a level above MN) BS-MN=1
(LERG is at a level above LER/FA. LERG caters to 3 such links as shown in the simple diagram: LER/FA 1, LER/FA 2 and HA) LERG-LER/FA = 1 (1 or 2 or HA) = 1
(Given above)
(Same reason as above) – In the diagram we are assuming new LER/FA as LER/FA 2 and old as LER/FA 1
, (MN is within a BS, which is within an LER/FA. There are 2 AR or BS under an LER/FA as shown in the simple diagram, each of which in turn has minimum 2 nodes MN and CN) MN-BS-LER/FA = 2
(Same reason as above)
(Same reason as above)
(Same reason as above)
(LER/FA has to cross the switch layer so this value is assumed) LER/FA1 (or old)-LERG-LER/FA (or new) = 2

(Same calculation as above)

(Same calculation as above)
Scenarios
1. MN under MA5

CASE A Using FH MMPLS protocol
a. As soon as the MN moves in a foreign network it registers with the network. The time for this is calculated earlier in equation 6 as
+ + +
+ + +
b. After the LSPs are established the MN performs a process of handover which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes given by equation 16 = + + +
+ +
c. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN, which takes time . Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
d. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
e. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
f. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA which takes time .
g. The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by
= + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + + + + = 396ms
CASE B Using FC MMPLS protocol
a. As soon as the MN moves in a foreign network it registers with the network. And performs handover The time for this is calculated earlier as + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
f. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by
= + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + = + + + + + + +
= 114ms

CASE C Using Basic Micro Mobile MPLS

a. As soon as the MN moves in a foreign network it registers with the network. The time for this is calculated earlier in equation 10 as
+ + + +
+ + + +
b. After the LSPs are established the MN performs a process of Inter LER handover, which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes. This is given as
= + + + + + + + + +
c. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
d. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
f. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +

= + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + = 351ms

2. MN under MA6

CASE A Using FH MMPLS protocol

a. In this case there is an intra LER handoff which takes place which takes time + + + + + + + + +
b. As CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN, which takes time . Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA which takes time .
f. The packets are then transferred to the MN’s LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by
= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 243ms

CASE B Using FC MMPLS protocol
a. MN performs a process of Intra LER handover, which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes. This is given as
+ + + + + + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
f. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by
= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 243ms
CASE C Using Basic Micro Mobile MPLS

a. MN performs a process of Intra LER handover, which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes. This is given as
+ + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
e. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by
= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 235ms
3. MN under MA7

CASE A Using FH MMPLS protocol

a. In this case there is an inter LER handoff which takes place which takes time + + + + + + + + +
b. As CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN, which takes time . Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA which takes time .
f. The packets are then transferred to the MN’s LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 185ms

CASE B Using FC MMPLS protocol
a. In this case there is an inter LER handoff which takes place which takes time + + + + + + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
f. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 182ms

CASE C Using Basic Micro Mobile MPLS

a. In this case MN performs a process of Inter LER handover, which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes. This is given as
+ + + + + + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
e. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 173ms

4. MN under a BS in the CN’s network

CASE A Using FH MMPLS protocol

g. In this case there is an inter LER handoff which takes place which takes time + + + + + + + + +
h. As CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN, which takes time . Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
i. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
j. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
k. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA which takes time .
l. The packets are then transferred to the MN’s LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 173ms

CASE B Using FC MMPLS protocol
a. In this case there is an inter LER handoff which takes place which takes time + + + + + + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. LSP will be established between CN’s LER/FA and LERG taking a time of
e. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
f. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 173ms

CASE C Using Basic Micro Mobile MPLS

a. In this case the MN performs a process of Inter LER handover, which would make it ready to receive messages sent from any other nodes. This is given as
+ + + + + + + + +
b. CN’s LER/FA contacts the LERG when it wishes to communicate with the MN with takes time . This is then transferred to the LER/FA containing the MN which takes time Finally LER/FA passes on the message to the MN taking time
c. Then the CN renews the binding cache by adding an entry that will represent the MN in the new region that has been moved which takes time
d. CN renews its table by adding an entry that will represent the LSPs that have been established to the new region of MN taking time
e. CN then sends packets to the LERG via the LER/FA, which takes time . The packets are then transferred to the MN’s new LER/FA taking time . Finally the LER/FA transfers the message to MN taking a time of
Total time for this is given by

= + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = + + + + + + + + + = 173ms

x

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