Introduction: This article is going to reveal several restrictions which are confining the development of youth marketing China. As external side, we would rationally analyze the complicated connection between young tourist and environmental elements. Contrarily, internal side reflects the tourists’ motivation. The main purpose is to find out personal and environmental conflicts for youth tourists in China. Based on several related findings, those can help us know more about the difference between China this huge developing market and that of some developed countries.
These conclusions are helpful information for tourism marketers to predict the prospect of youth tourism. 1 Current state of youth tourism in China Over more than ten years of high-speed development, based on China’s huge population as market, not only secondary industry sharing its enormous achievement but also tertiary industry’s development which can be significantly noted. Although the theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) mentioned that traveling is advanced need, China have entered into mass tourism period, in particular, the expenditure in tourism increasingly reduce.
It had never been luxurious consumer goods to China which is staying at developing stage. Doubtfully, depending on its rich tourism resources and equally huge travelable group, China tourism market still stays at group packing sell. More or less, backpacker tourism seems like an inaccessible area to Chinese travelers. Especially students (in the article, student means who is studying in university or under the age of 25), they are expecting to get more options to expand horizon, for information age has come (Claudia, 2008).
On the contrary, comparing to some developed countries like USA and EU, students tourism which occupying more than 20% of all international traveling are considered as a valuable part of tourism market (UNWTO, 2005). Furthermore, almost those countries’ backpackers are students or the under twenty-fours. All of them are willing to take a gap year or carrier break to travel or take an international internship in worldwide (Claudia, 2008). Contrarily, Chinese students are more intend to enter society and emphasize on job-hunting.
The WYSTC’s data shows us that it will be 500 million people under the age of 30 which is nearly the population of the European Union (The World Youth and Student Travel Conference, 2010). However, nowadays youth in china show more interest in other culture and tend to study abroad, because the sense for future in their mind has changes. They would become a new actor in this mega tourism market. Next chapter, I would try to analyze what restrictions are limiting Chinese students to become a traveler, and the main target is the youths age from 15 to 25 who are in campus or graduated one or two years.
Indeed, young people who are older than 25 age year old obviously become not likely to be defined as student (Carr, 2002). Therefore the group I have mentioned can help us know more about what factors are influencing the motivation of youth tourism. 2 External limitation and restriction From this part, I would analyze several aspects of internal and external which are especially outstanding in China with the purpose to reveal and highlight those limitations. However, external factors often are defined as environmental effectiveness which is encompassing other internal factors.
2. 1 National factors. National factors or called political reasons can be comprehended as diplomacy effects. Actually, a part of the Chinese students was deeply influenced by western culture, therefore, to be a backpacker and traveling to foreign countries became their desire, but at the same time, visa is the first problem to solve. With the finding of Claudia (2008), the cost of visas is not the only problem students could face, the right to visas and many complicated immigration rules would also be hard nuts to crack. For Chinese students, if they want to stay abroad for a long term, they even confront the differences in ideology.
Apart from international tourism, official tourism departments did not draw enough attention on youth tourism for vacation, internship and educational study trip in domestic tourism market. 2. 2 Social environment factors In their trips, youngsters would suffer from being separated from their family protection and exposed to risks (Claudia 2008); particularly they are lack of sufficient experience. In some traditional Chinese families, parents would present hesitation when the young generations hope to have an independent journey because in some Chinese cities crime rates are not controlled very well.
Besides, obviously different climate and height can be regarded as variation in ecological conditions which might be a restriction in youth tourism. At the same time, Claudia’s conception (2008) considers that youth backpackers must effectively deal with cross-culture influence, such as the gap between different cultures and distinction in customs and conventions especially in international tourism. As to Chinese students, lacking of cross-culture experience is their significant difficulty.
2. 3 Tourism industry context. Package group is the main tourism approaches in China, as the result tourism organization frequently overlooks the weight of youth market. In recent days, there are no extended companies or organizations fully concentrate on any form of youth tourism because they always consider it as unprofitable. As Claudia (2008) highlighted, youth tourism is an own right, not just a tourism in younger version. Aside from package group, youth backpackers are facing information shortages as well. Recent guides and information almost come from Internet which appears unreliable and informal, so youngsters usually feel anxious and helpless. Internal factors Compared to external factors, internal aspects seems like inherent elements existed. Generally, internal elements are unchangeable or it needs powerful force to change, just as temperament. Furthermore, internal limitations usually play a vital role in whether a youth can become a tourist. For this reason, it is necessary to find out how many factors are confining youth tourism. 3. 1 Individual character First of all, personal temperament is an initial and core element exists in tourist’s psychology. Usually, it is affecting person’s habit, leading to whether he or she is obsessed with travelling.
Put simply, tourism still can not become an approach for relaxation, although other required facets are adequately fulfilled. The reason is without a strong motivation to enrich his or her horizon via tourism (MICHAEL and FEIFEI, 2009). Secondly, tourism experience is a factor which influence whether he or she can become a regular tourist. As MICHAEL and FEIFEI (2009) defined, their experiences serve as a tool to discover more destinations. It could let us imagine it as a career ladder (Pearce and Caltabiano, 1983), experiences can help tourists climb it faster.
In fact, Chinese youths often confront experience shortage, so they are usually afraid of being a backpacker. They would rather prefer tour organizations as their information resources. 3. 2 Financial limitation As we knew, almost students haven’t any stable income, thus they must rely on their family. Compared to some developed countries, E. U. has considered it as limitation for a big part of youngsters. They passed part of policies to promote and help youth tourism (Claudia, 2008). On the contrary, Chinese youth should shoulder high expenditure in the journey, leading youth tourism become unpopular activities.
Actually, such as international internships or exchanges, not every student can burden its high-prices fees for agency, because Chinese students can not independently be employed by foreign companies. 3. 3 Cultural influence In Chinese young people’s mind, their job career is also a hesitation. Most of Chinese students, they are unwilling to spend one year on travelling to other places. That is because they hope they could obtain a financial income as quickly as possible, and escaping from job is considered as an irresponsible behavior and time-wasting.
They want to repay their family after graduation. It seems like a traditional concept dominating in their mind. Obviously, the result is Chinese students without any short time like “gap year” in UK and “overseas experiences” in Australia and New Zealand (O’Reilly, 2006). 4 Conclusion It’s seems clear that neglecting youth tourism market is fault, because MICHAEL and FEIFEI (2009) strongly considered today’s young tourists are the professional class tourists in the future. Better analyses in this market would be an effective indicator to inform tourism marketers.
Especially, China is occupying more than 25% youth in her population. It would be prospective market. Fortunately, some evidences show us this difficult position of youth tourism would be settled. Since the concept of rights and freedom widely spread, go wider and longer is available. In addition, budget airlines and accommodations can better decrease tourism expenditure for youth. At least, financial problem is not an issue yet. One day, we hope China youth tourism market could become a rising market in the world.